10 Ways EVERYONE Should Be Using ChatGPT To Improve Their Lives

Source: Obscurious

This excellent video by Obscurious explains 10 easy ways for anyone to use ChatGPT to improve their lives. ChatGPT is easy to use and free, and it produces human-like responses that are more digestible and in-depth than Google results. Some use cases include replacing Google searches, summarizing complex topics, using ChatGPT as a tutor, using it for writing, and generating recipes with a with shopping list, and more. The video provides tips and suggestions for each use case, and recommends fact-checking any information received.


Everyone has been talking about ChatGPT, and many have already experimented with it. I have come across a lot of people who have messed around but are not sure how they can apply it to their lives. What is it for? Others think it sounds cool but assume it is complicated. The good news is that it is extremely simple to use, and while there are endless use cases, I want to talk about easy ways anyone can use it to improve their own lives right now.

The things that I find most important are ways to learn new topics efficiently, save time, optimize productivity, become healthier both mentally and physically, and to get new ideas and create content, whatever your creative endeavors might be. So, I made this video as simple and actionable as possible with everything you need to know, plus lots of pro tips sprinkled throughout. Now, if you have never used Chat GPT, it is easy and free. Just go to the website, create an account, and start typing in the dialog box.

(1) The first use case I want to start with is an especially easy one that I have been using a lot, and that is basically replacing Google for a huge amount of things that you would typically Google.

Chat GPT produces better results, more quickly without having to open any links. It gives these human-like responses that are more digestible and give you in-depth answers with context that you would normally have to sift through tons of websites to get to. Plus, you have the ability to ask more questions and refine those answers. Say we wanted a product recommendation. Most of the time, if you use Google, you will have to click on a bunch of sites that are full of ads and affiliate links and trying to sell you something.

But this gets straight to the point. It is a huge time saver for these types of searches. And you should always fact-check any information you receive, just like you would if you were reading it anywhere else.

(2) If you did not know, ChatGPT has only been programmed with information from the year 2021 and earlier, but there is an extension called WebChatGPT that feeds it up-to-date information. It is a widget that pops up on the existing interface. You just toggle it on and off. It is completely free. I will not be mentioning anything that is not free.

If you still want to see Google’s results, there is another free extension, ChatOnAI.org. It displays ChatGPT responses alongside Google so you can see both at the same time.

So, there are tons of different tools and extensions that have already come out, but I am going to focus just on Chat GPT for the rest of this video. I will dive into all of those in my next video, so just make sure you are subscribed if you want to see that.

(3) Next up is summarizing. It is a huge time saver if you want to summarize a complex topic, a blog, an article, a YouTube video, or a book. I have the problem of stumbling across articles that sound interesting and then getting sucked into a rabbit hole for an hour reading about some obscure topic that will never apply to my life when I should probably be working.

There is a reason this channel is called Obscurious. So, asking Chat GPT to summarize the topic can help or send me deeper down the rabbit hole faster. Another way to use that is say you want to summarize a TED talk. You can have Chat GPT summarize the whole thing. The way to do that is there is a button on YouTube where you can click show transcript, then you toggle off the timestamps, copy the whole thing, paste it into Chat GPT, and ask it to summarize.

And one more example around summarizing because I find it hugely valuable. Let us say someone told you about a non-fiction book. You could say something like, “summarize the concepts and give me five actionable insights that I can apply to my own life.” Bam! I just saved five hours of reading. And do not get me wrong, of course, reading has its benefits, but ninety percent of these books, especially self-help, are mostly filler.

(4) The next huge use case that actually pairs well with the previous two is using ChatGPT as a tutor. In the example of summarizing a TED talk, a self-help book, or an article, you could say, “quiz me on these concepts and the way they are applicable to my own life.” If you are learning a new language, you could ask it to talk and ask questions in that language. Another cool use case in this realm is if you have notes that you have taken on a lecture or a book, you could input those notes and ask it to organize or summarize them, then give you flashcards for studying and quiz you.

For each chat you create, ChatGPT retains the information and instruction you have given it within that chat, so you could leave one open and periodically come back and ask it to quiz you on that information.

(5) The next use case is writing. It is great anytime you want to write anything: essays, emails, blogs, scripts, resumes, leases, you name it. Let us say you need a five-paragraph essay on Edward Bernays in the history of propaganda (although I would recommend researching that one yourself).

You can also rephrase things with another tool called QuillBot.com, which helps to avoid AI detectors. I am just giving information, not recommendations. The skill of writing is important, but let us be real, a lot of schoolwork is just nonsense… If you wanted to write a blog, email, or tweet, just tell it the format and subject matter and let it write. Now, of course, go through and fact-check, reword things, all of that, but this can save a lot of time.

(6) You can also use it just to improve or edit existing text that you already have. Someone commented on my last video and said Chat GPT helped them make their breakup letter to their ghosting ex sound less angry. So, lots of ways you can use this.

(7) Another cool tip is you could input a bunch of samples of your own writing and ask it to write in that style. It sounds surprisingly similar. Or you could ask it to write in anyone’s style: Thoreau, Chaucer, Tolstoy. Some fun ones are asking it to answer you in the style of Edgar Allan Poe or Dr. Seuss.

(8) It is great for coming up with ideas or brainstorming, whether that is creative or business endeavors, writing prompts, song ideas, inventions, title ideas, and marketing concepts. A tip: If it comes back with things that sound generic, ask it for ideas that are unique and unconventional. It can come up with some surprisingly good stuff sometimes. And you may ask it for 10, and out of that 10, only one is good, but sometimes that is all you need.

I saw this cool example of how to come up with an invention. It said, “write a description for a football that was improved, and what additional features would you find if you use TRIZ ?”

(9) Now, you can use it for health in many ways. I used this example in my last video. But here is how you can create a workout plan optimized for your own body type and fitness level, then also create a healthy meal plan. You can add customizations like for someone who is lactose intolerant or does not like seafood or your own personal preferences. Then ask for recipes for each of those meals as well as a shopping list of all the ingredients. It is insanely useful for this.

Also, just for recipes in general, it is amazing. Most cooking sites put the recipes somewhere near the bottom, and you have to scroll through this long story, and it is just full of ads everywhere trying to find it. You can get straight to the point in here. You could even give it a list of ingredients that you have on hand and ask for recipes that use only those ingredients.

(10) As far as mental health, it can give some great tips. This kind of goes along with that replacing Google use, but the human element here is especially nice. You could say, “I am feeling very anxious and overwhelmed.” This response has good advice with a really nice human touch. And like it mentions, of course, seek out a mental health professional if needed, but if you are feeling lack of motivation or unorganized, things like that, ask it for some tips.

This should give you a lot of ideas and ways to optimize your time and improve your life. There are a lot of other AI tools that dive deeper and are customized around each of these use cases, plus tons of other uses. I have been experimenting with a lot of them, so I will be covering my favorites and the most powerful tools in my next video. See you then!

Next Generation of AI Is Coming THIS Week: ChatGPT 4 and MidJourney V5

Source: Maximize

ChatGPT 4 and MidJourney V5 are BOTH scheduled to release this week!! You can’t imagine this happening in your craziest AI dream. In this video, Max goes over the new features and capabilities you can expect from the new AI tools: Chat GPT 4 and MidJourney V5.

Check out more great videos about AI tools on Max’s amazing YouTube channel: Maximize

WATCH What Jordan Peterson Says About Elon Musk: “He’s probably an alien… probably a reptilian.”

Source: MotivHolic

In this thought-provoking video, renowned psychologist and author Jordan Peterson sits down to discuss the life and achievements of billionaire entrepreneur Elon Musk. Peterson dives deep into Musk’s upbringing, exploring how his childhood experiences have shaped his innovative and ambitious approach to business and technology. Drawing on his expertise in psychology and human behavior, Peterson offers unique insights into Musk’s personality and character traits, uncovering what makes him such a powerful and influential figure in the tech industry.

At the end, Jordan Peterson says the following about Musk:
“I mean to produce an automobile sub-industry that’s actually competitive, and to bring down the cost of space exploration by a factor of 10, and to invent reusable rockets, and to have developed this boring technology. It’s it’s miraculous. He’s probably an alien… probably a reptilian.”

Use AI To Get Ahead While Others Oanic (PREPARE NOW) | Tom Bilyeu

Source: Tom Bilyeu

Tom Bilyeu:

AI is going to obliterate your job. And that’s fantastic news. It will finally free you up to make real money. If you don’t panic, that is. Most people are going to panic. Don’t let that be you. Stick with me. I’ll explain.

If you do a search on google about AI you’re going to find a lot of terrifying things. You’ll see art that’s indistinguishable from the best artists on the planet. You’ll hear how AI can pass college exams and get a high score on an IQ test. For many of you, you’ll even see examples of how AI can do your job better than you can. And this is all with a clunky phase one product. Wait until AI has been on the market for 6 months. Or more terrifyingly, 6 years. No one is safe. It will be that disruptive.

But as I always tell people, moments of disruption present the biggest opportunity. But you’re going to have to be aggressive when everyone else is freaking out.

So… is AI really THAT revolutionary? And if so, how do you really make money with it?

The short answer is yes. AI will be the biggest change not just in your lifetime, but in anyone’s lifetime. It is the ultimate force multiplier. Right now, humans are limited by the rate at which they can think. This determines the rate at which they can solve problems. And as Elon Musk says, people are paid in direct proportion to the difficulty of the problems they solve.

If you try to beat AI, you will lose. What I want to convince you of in this video is that you don’t need to beat AI, you need to use it.

It almost doesn’t matter what industry you’re in, you’re going to be able to do your job better with AI. But you need to get the first mover advantage. To do that, you need to stop researching AI and start using it. At my company, Impact Theory, we’ve already integrated AI into our marketing funnels, our copywriting pipeline, for art concepting, final image generation, creative ideation, and human voice generation. And that’s all just in the last few months.

I’ve been watching Ai closely for a while now, and we’ve reached the elbow of the exponential curve. Things are only going to start moving faster from here. The key is to not get left behind. So don’t waste a single minute lamenting about how things are changing. Change is inevitable, and change at this speed is dangerous if you’re not paying attention.

Given how much AI has already altered our systems, over the next few years, I’m expecting it to majorly accelerate our ability to test and learn. And whoever learns the fastest is going to win.

This is all happening in plain sight. Everyone is talking about it. But to take advantage of this moment, I need you to do three things:

Reframe your thinking around AI. Don’t see it as the enemy. See it as a tool. It really is a tool. You’re not going to be replaced by AI, at least not yet. You’re going to be replaced by a human using AI. Be that human that replaces others.

Figure out how AI is going to disrupt you. Face it head-on. Don’t run. Don’t hide. Identify your vulnerabilities. Identify all of the AI tools that are relevant to you and master them. Learn absolutely everything you can.

Remember, this is the very beginning of a very aggressive revolution. Moving quickly gives you two advantages:

You can rocket ahead of other people by mastering the tools. If you master the tools, people are going to turn to you because you’re able to more efficiently solve problems. Going back to the Elon Musk quote – if you can solve harder problems faster, you’re going to get paid more. And in these early days, while most people are stuck in the “deer in headlights” mode, you have an unfair advantage.

The second advantage that AI gives you is an almost unimaginable amount of efficiency in certain tasks. Don’t get me wrong, AI isn’t a panacea. There are plenty of problems that right now AI sucks at. Sam Altman, the founder of OpenAI, maker of the ubiquitous ChatGPT, has himself said that people are getting so hyped up that they’re going to be disappointed. If you think that this is Terminator 2 already and ChatGPT is going to turn into liquid metal and save you from space aliens, yes, you’re going to be disappointed.

Take action. Learn. Build. Create. Leverage AI and see what you can do together.

University Study Determines that Fire Did NOT Bring Down World Trade Center Building 7 on 9/11

Source: AE911Truth

On September 11, 2001, at 5:20 PM, the 47-story World Trade Center Building 7 collapsed into its footprint, falling more than 100 feet at the rate of gravity for 2.5 seconds of its seven-second destruction.

The Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth are pleased to partner with the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) in releasing the final report of a four-year computer modeling study of WTC 7’s collapse conducted by researchers in the university’s Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.

We invite you to read the report and to watch Dr. Leroy Hulsey’s presentation at the UAF campus, where he first announced his team’s findings:

Read more great articles at AE911.

Gregg Braden: The Odds Are We’re Living in a SIMULATION – Here’s Why


Source: Gregg Braden Official

Gregg Braden describes what it means to be posthuman, and answers the question: is it possible that we are living in a simulated reality?

Glitches in the Matrix – Multiple Short Videos Showing We May Be Living in a Simulation; Plus How YOU Can THRIVE

WATCH: Are We Living in a Simulated Reality? If So, Why? | Gregg Braden

Source: Gregg Braden Official

In this video, Gregg Braden addresses reincarnation and simulated reality. Recently, supercomputer algorithms calculation showed that we are most likely living in a simulated reality rather than a virtual reality. If this is the case, then we need to ask ourselves – where exactly are we? Who created this simulation? And most importantly, why are we here?

Related article: Simulation Theory and “A Glitch in the Matrix” | Cynthia Sue Larson

You Never Thought This Was Possible With VR

Some may see it as a sci-fi utopia or movie plot, but we’re living in the future. Virtual reality in the adult entertainment industry is a huge thing now, and it is becoming a new normal for getting pleasure. 

VR as a concept isn’t new. It has been around for decades now. And, truth be told, for as long as it has been in the public eye, the concept of VR sex was always a hot topic. Today, VR sex is no longer just a hypothetical thing. It’s a reality.

VR in the sex industry is still in its early days. But this technology is increasingly popular among adults looking for some unique sexual experiences. So, companies everywhere are already experimenting with smart sex toys, offering consumers unique pleasurable experiences.

Source: Unsplash

Virtual sex

Virtual sex sounds like a sci-fi novel idea. But, it’s actually no longer a sci-fi concept but a reality. Virtual sex is just another term for something that most people these days are familiar with: cybersex. The truth is that we were all already using tech in our everyday sex lives, even without being aware of it. From looking for sexual partners on online dating apps to sliding into the DMs of people we find hot to sexting, dropping a nude to our sexual partners, and all that. So, it was only a matter of time before tech entered our bedrooms for more pleasurable experiences.

According to Teen Health Source, virtual sex represents “any kind of sexual activity that people do with/on the internet.” The same definition also includes activities like sexting, masturbating together on video chat, phone sex, sending photos, and chat rooms as virtual sex.

But, with technology developments reaching new heights in the adult entertainment industry, the term “virtual sex” gets a little bit more complicated. Today, the industry has more unique experiences to offer to consumers, including realistic adult video games, VR porn, and even the possibility to receive tactile sensations from remote participants or fictional characters using computer-controlled VR sex toys.

The virtual reality porn experience

One of the biggest VR things in the adult entertainment industry is VR porn.

At the beginning of VR glasses, these devices were meant to be plugged into smartphones or other home devices to access content which would then be displayed through the glasses. It was all about making the experience more real. Very quickly, users started to think about how it would be to see a porn scene through those glasses. And, tech professionals and adult entertainment companies were quick to answer. Today, users who are tired of the same old porn can find VR porn content that is often in 5K or 4K resolution, creating an immersive environment that allows them to feel like they are truly part of the scene they are watching.

Now, in theory, you don’t need any heavy-duty equipment to watch VR adult content and feel like you are taking part in the action. All you need is a smartphone suspended in a headset that allows you to see the content more excitingly. Yet, this is where VR sex toys come into the scene to spice things up even more!

VR does a fantastic job tricking our brains into thinking that what we see through those glasses is actually taking place in front of us, next to us, or… on top of us. Now, with VR, you can see that things are happening in front of your eyes, and you can see other people being part of the action. But is seeing enough? Adult toys developers argue that it isn’t. Your eyes may see something that looks like you’re behind the scenes of an exciting sexual experience. But, the problem is that you don’t actually feel those people you are seeing. So, haptics used in sex toys aims to make users also feel.

VR toys offer unparalleled sexual experiences

Needless to say, VR sex is a new thing to many. And, it’s a bit strange to get used to it at first. But if you want to become more familiar with this concept, you’re in for a fun and pleasurable ride.

In its simplest form, VR sex consists of three things: a VR device, interacting media, and something that you can interact with, such as interactive male sex toy options. Combining VR with another technology called teledildonics, today’s innovative VR sex toys allow users to stimulate one another, and the VR adult content enhances the experiences making them more immersive.

Traditional adult content means nothing more than staring at a screen, but VR transports users somewhere else and allows them to actually feel pleasure. And, combining this experience with VR toys gives users unparalleled sexual experiences.

Pros of VR sex and toys

The development of VR sex toys and experiences isn’t good news just because it offers some unique experiences. It also allows users to get sexual experiences they wouldn’t be able to get in real life or they would repress.

VR sex allows people to experiment with different avatars, genders, and forms of sexuality. The intimate nature of these VR sex tools allows users to express and experience their deepest sexual desires.

Think about couples who are struggling with sexual compatibility. VR sex creates a big playground where they can start experimenting and opening up about their sexual desires and even act their fantasies out.

VR sex is also a tool that can help users struggling with their sexual identity. For example, those who identify as bi might experience a certain loss of that identity if they are part of a monogamous relationship. VR adult content and sex toys allow them to fulfill the sexual needs that they can’t fulfill in their relationship.

These are all significant pluses for experimenting with technology to intensify our sexual experiences.

Robot’s Human-Like Reaction ‘Freaks Out’ Creators

Source: Ameca Interaction

A machine touted as the world’s most advanced humanoid robot “freaked out” its creators when it reacted with visible irritation and grabbed the hand of a researcher who got into its “personal space.”

A video demonstration of the interaction shows the robot, called ‘Ameca’, tracking a moving finger before furrowing its brow and leaning back as the person’s hand comes nearer. After the researcher pokes its nose, the robot then grabs their hand and moves it away.

The impressively life-like robot, which is being developed by British firm Engineered Arts, has been billed as the “future face of robotics” and “the perfect humanoid robot platform for human-robot interaction.”

When sharing the clip on YouTube, the Cornwall-based robotics firm said that “Ameca reacts as things enter their ‘personal space.’” The developers noted that this behavior was “even starting to freak us out at Engineered Arts and we are used to it!”

What You Need to Know About a VPN Service

With more and more people using VPNs for surfing the internet, have you ever thought about what a VPN is, how it works, and how to choose the right one for you? Find all answers in this post.

What is a VPN?

A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a service that allows us to securely expand our local network so that we may access it from any distant place over the internet. VPNs are becoming more popular. In the event that we submit a request over a VPN for Windows, our internet service providers route us to the VPN server, and from there, all of the websites that we browse are handled by these servers.

Our ISP will not be aware of the fact that we are browsing many websites at the same time; instead, it will believe that we have only requested a connection to the VPN server, and our identity will be protected. As a result, the individual’s online identity may be readily concealed from Internet service providers.

How does VPN Works?

A VPN’s main purpose is to provide a secure connection to your preferred public network via the internet. Through the use of encryption, decryption, and authentication, this connection has an extra layer of protection on top of the standard security measures. Security algorithms are followed by both network protocols and the network itself. How can having a different IP address help?

It’s all about hiding your true identity from hackers. You’ll be given an alias IP address by the VPN service providers because of this. It is thus possible to interact securely while removing the chance of information being hacked from an unknown source. What are the nitty-gritty details?

For the VPN to function, tunneling protocols must be used. It’s critical for transferring data between two places. Protocols encrypt data so that it can’t be hacked without a special decryption key. In addition to the data itself, the IP addresses of the computers at either end are encrypted. Implementing L3 MPLS technology is an excellent way to attain this goal.

As a result, anytime you utilize online transaction methods in the future, you won’t have to worry about security concerns anymore since you’ll be connected to the distant system over the VPN.

Free VPNs or Not?

In order to set up a VPN, businesses require specialist network equipment, but individuals may choose from a range of premium and free VPN services to get the job done.

As a result, IP addresses from free VPN servers are often blocked or filtered by several websites, including the ones listed below: By using free VPN services you open yourself up to being targeted by hackers, spammers, and other bad actors.

Only a few antivirus businesses also sell VPN services, and these may work as a useful middle ground between free and commercial choices, as consumers who already possess antivirus software from one of these companies may be eligible for better costs. As preconfigured VPN solutions, customers don’t have to worry about setting them up.

How Do You Choose a VPN?

Which provider is the best free VPN for Windows or smartphones? One of the most important considerations is whether you want to host your own VPN server or use a third-party service. There isn’t a straightforward response to this question since it is dependent on your requirements and whether you are seeking personal or business usage.

External service providers are more cost-effective since their solutions are sometimes low-cost or even free of charge. Consider if the service is compatible with your chosen operating system, works on mobile and desktop, and supports multiple users when choosing a service for your firm.

Aside from the cost, choosing a third-party service provider puts you at more risk. In addition, keep in mind that your payment card information and IP address may be stored by the VPN service provider. Just because you’re connected to a VPN doesn’t imply your internet activity is hidden.

Identify the Problem With Your Graphics Card

The basic principle of the graphics card is that it is your computer’s display. It receives text and graphics from your programs and sends them to your computer display screen. A graphics card problem will display the result on your screen, sometimes making it difficult for you to separate the two. If your screen flickers, it means that the video is not being displayed. In 3D view, you will see spots, green squares, and flashing lines interspersed with black areas. One of the components of the screen or the graphics card will fail in any case.

The screen must be excluded from the equation. This can only be done by isolating the screen from the other elements. You can choose which one, but it’s easier to connect to another screen than to swap a graphics card. If you only have one monitor, borrow it and connect it to the computer. This method is compatible with most laptops including the mac if you have the correct connections. Do display problems persist? If so, the problem is with the graphics card. If not, it’s with the screen.

Troubleshoot a problem with your graphics card

Consider updating before you embark on any major tasks. An issue with your graphics card driver can cause problems. Open the Windows “Start” menu. Click on “Computer“, then “Properties“, and finally “System.” Select “Device Manager” from the “Hardware tab.” Double-click your name in the “Graphics Card” section. You will see the version in the “Driver Tab“. You can check the manufacturer’s site to see if it is the most current or download the latest. It should also be compatible with your operating system version.

How to change the graphics card

If the display is not working properly, it’s time to replace the graphics card. You can change a component with minimal effort, but it is a simple process. It is the most difficult step to make sure you choose the correct graphic card part. Consider whether you require more power or more memory. You can still buy a similar card but a new one with 100% compatibility.

The Most Powerful Space Telescope Ever Built Will Look Back In Time To the Dark Ages of the Universe

Hubble took pictures of the oldest galaxies it could – seen here – but the James Webb Space Telescope can go back much farther in time.

Chris Impey, University of Arizona

Some have called NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope the “telescope that ate astronomy.” It is the most powerful space telescope ever built and a complex piece of mechanical origami that has pushed the limits of human engineering. On Dec. 18, 2021, after years of delays and billions of dollars in cost overruns, the telescope is scheduled to launch into orbit and usher in the next era of astronomy.

I’m an astronomer with a specialty in observational cosmology – I’ve been studying distant galaxies for 30 years. Some of the biggest unanswered questions about the universe relate to its early years just after the Big Bang. When did the first stars and galaxies form? Which came first, and why? I am incredibly excited that astronomers may soon uncover the story of how galaxies started because James Webb was built specifically to answer these very questions.

A graphic showing the progression of the Universe through time.
The Universe went through a period of time known as the Dark Ages before stars or galaxies emitted any light.
Space Telescope Institute

The ‘Dark Ages’ of the universe

Excellent evidence shows that the universe started with an event called the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, which left it in an ultra-hot, ultra-dense state. The universe immediately began expanding after the Big Bang, cooling as it did so. One second after the Big Bang, the universe was a hundred trillion miles across with an average temperature of an incredible 18 billion F (10 billion C). Around 400,000 years after the Big Bang, the universe was 10 million light years across and the temperature had cooled to 5,500 F (3,000 C). If anyone had been there to see it at this point, the universe would have been glowing dull red like a giant heat lamp.

Throughout this time, space was filled with a smooth soup of high energy particles, radiation, hydrogen and helium. There was no structure. As the expanding universe became bigger and colder, the soup thinned out and everything faded to black. This was the start of what astronomers call the Dark Ages of the universe.

The soup of the Dark Ages was not perfectly uniform and due to gravity, tiny areas of gas began to clump together and become more dense. The smooth universe became lumpy and these small clumps of denser gas were seeds for the eventual formation of stars, galaxies and everything else in the universe.

Although there was nothing to see, the Dark Ages were an important phase in the evolution of the universe.

A diagram showing different wavelengths of light compared to size of normal objects.
Light from the early universe is in the infrared wavelength – meaning longer than red light – when it reaches Earth.
Inductiveload/NASA via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA

Looking for the first light

The Dark Ages ended when gravity formed the first stars and galaxies that eventually began to emit the first light. Although astronomers don’t know when first light happened, the best guess is that it was several hundred million years after the Big Bang. Astronomers also don’t know whether stars or galaxies formed first.

Current theories based on how gravity forms structure in a universe dominated by dark matter suggest that small objects – like stars and star clusters – likely formed first and then later grew into dwarf galaxies and then larger galaxies like the Milky Way. These first stars in the universe were extreme objects compared to stars of today. They were a million times brighter but they lived very short lives. They burned hot and bright and when they died, they left behind black holes up to a hundred times the Sun’s mass, which might have acted as the seeds for galaxy formation.

Astronomers would love to study this fascinating and important era of the universe, but detecting first light is incredibly challenging. Compared to massive, bright galaxies of today, the first objects were very small and due to the constant expansion of the universe, they’re now tens of billions of light years away from Earth. Also, the earliest stars were surrounded by gas left over from their formation and this gas acted like fog that absorbed most of the light. It took several hundred million years for radiation to blast away the fog. This early light is very faint by the time it gets to Earth.

But this is not the only challenge.

As the universe expands, it continuously stretches the wavelength of light traveling through it. This is called redshift because it shifts light of shorter wavelengths – like blue or white light – to longer wavelengths like red or infrared light. Though not a perfect analogy, it is similar to how when a car drives past you, the pitch of any sounds it is making drops noticeably.

Similar to how a pitch of a sound drops if the source is moving away from you, the wavelength of light stretches due to the expansion of the universe.

By the time light emitted by an early star or galaxy 13 billion years ago reaches any telescope on Earth, it has been stretched by a factor of 10 by the expansion of the universe. It arrives as infrared light, meaning it has a wavelength longer than that of red light. To see first light, you have to be looking for infrared light.

[The Conversation’s science, health and technology editors pick their favorite stories. Weekly on Wednesdays.]

Telescope as a time machine

Enter the James Webb Space Telescope.

Telescopes are like time machines. If an object is 10,000 light-years away, that means the light takes 10,000 years to reach Earth. So the further out in space astronomers look, the further back in time we are looking.

A large golden colored disc with a sensor in the middle and scientists standing below.
The James Webb Space Telescope was specifically designed to detect the oldest galaxies in the universe.

Engineers optimized James Webb for specifically detecting the faint infrared light of the earliest stars or galaxies. Compared to the Hubble Space Telescope, James Webb has a 15 times wider field of view on its camera, collects six times more light and its sensors are tuned to be most sensitive to infrared light.

The strategy will be to stare deeply at one patch of sky for a long time, collecting as much light and information from the most distant and oldest galaxies as possible. With this data, it may be possible to answer when and how the Dark Ages ended, but there are many other important discoveries to be made. For example, unraveling this story may also help explain the nature of dark matter, the mysterious form of matter that makes up about 80% of the mass of the universe.

James Webb is the most technically difficult mission NASA has ever attempted. But I think the scientific questions it may help answer will be worth every ounce of effort. I and other astronomers are waiting excitedly for the data to start coming back sometime in 2022.The Conversation

Chris Impey, University Distinguished Professor of Astronomy, University of Arizona

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

How the Mathematics Behind Molecular Interactions Could Help Streamline Pharmaceutical Development

Science and mathematics are inextricably linked. Often, expertise in one requires experience in the other.

In the case of pharmaceutical development, fundamental mathematical equations underlie even the most complex molecular interactions. By studying the mathematical basis of the relationships between molecules, researchers can predict how changes might affect different reactions between molecules.

Binding Sites

Many pharmaceutical advancements rely on molecular interactions at binding sites. Macromolecules, such as the proteins that make up much of the human molecular catalog, have binding sites which allow the protein to attach to and interact with another molecule. Molecular binding creates a change within the protein that can cause it—and the cell—to function differently.

In some situations, proteins and other molecules don’t bind as they should. This can occur for a number of reasons, but continued binding issues can inhibit normal protein and cell function, leading to disease. For example, if the brain’s proteins don’t bind correctly with serotonin, neurotransmitters cannot function correctly, often resulting in anxiety and depression. This is just one example; protein binding happens constantly and is a key aspect of many diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disease.

Remedying Flawed Molecular Interactions

Medications and medicine rely on the binding process to do their job. Therefore, they are tasked with binding to proteins at specific binding sites that lack natural binding opportunities.

Of course, there are many disease mechanisms, but all hinge on faulty molecular interactions.

There are three main criteria for all molecular binding interactions, including:

  • Bond strength
  • Link rigidity
  • Size of linkage array

If one of the above is compromised, it can lead to diseased or disordered cell processes. Luckily, scientists have uncovered ways to change or manipulate these factors to control what occurs between two molecules or predict how molecular interactions will change with altered binding.

Experimenting With Binding Properties

Historically, experiments to see how medications bind to a protein were performed primarily in a lab setting. This meant trying different families of chemical compounds until one could properly bind to the protein and then identifying which of several analogous compounds most effectively addressed the disease or disorder at hand.

Now, scientists at the University of Minnesota have developed a computational model that takes some of the guesswork—and time—out of this process. Rather than running back-to-back experiments on hundreds or thousands of compounds, scientists can use a mathematical framework to predict how the molecules might interact. This streamlines the testing process, allowing scientists to make model predictions and then test valid candidates in real-time lab experiments. Though this framework does not eliminate the need for lab experiments by any means, it does allow researchers to change test parameters and develop a better understanding of which molecules will bind effectively to the desired binding sites.

Moving Forward

Researchers hope to use new computational models and mathematical frameworks to create a web-based app accessible to the scientific community. Researchers around the world could utilize these frameworks to test and develop pharmaceutical medications and other types of therapies for many diseases. This could provide huge breakthroughs in treatments for a wide range of conditions such as cancer, autoimmune disease, and neurological diseases.


https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200103/Novel-study-on-molecular-interactions-could-make-it-easier-to-develop-new-medicines.aspx (Jan 2020)

‘Planetary Defense!’ NASA Will Launch November Mission to Deflect ‘Devastating’ Asteroid from Hitting Earth by NUDGING It with A Spacecraft, Agency Says

NASA said on Monday that its mission to deflect an asteroid in deep space using a spacecraft is targeting a late November launch

By Chris Ciaccia | Dailymail.com

  • NASA’s mission to deflect an asteroid using a spacecraft is targeting a late November launch
  • The DART spacecraft will head towards the Didymos binary on November 24 aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket 
  • It will smash into Didymoon at roughly 13,500mph on October 2, 2022
  • Didymoon came close to Earth in 2003, coming within 3.7 million miles 
  • According to NASA, over 25,000 near-Earth objects have been discovered

NASA said on Monday that its mission to deflect an asteroid in deep space using a spacecraft is targeting a late November launch.

Known as the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission, the U.S. space agency will send the DART spacecraft to a pair of asteroids – the Didymos binary – at 1:20 a.m. EST on November 24 aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California.

DART will smash in one of the two asteroids, known as Didymoon, at roughly 13,500mph on October 2, 2022.

In doing so, it will change the speed of Didymoon by a fraction of a percent, but it will be enough so NASA can measure its altered orbit.

This will provide valuable input into future missions to deflect asteroids.

At roughly 160 meters (524ft) wide, Didymoon orbits a much larger space rock known as Didymos that is approximately 780 meters (2,559ft) across.

Didymoon came relatively close to Earth in 2003, coming within 3.7 million miles.

Of the two asteroids, Didymoon is more likely to hit Earth, given there are more space rocks its size that NASA and the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) have yet to observe.

‘DART will be the first demonstration of the kinetic impactor technique, which involves sending one or more large, high-speed spacecraft into the path of an asteroid in space to change its motion,’ NASA said in a statement.


What Is the Difference Between a Magnetometer, Gaussmeter, and Teslameter?

What is a Magnetic Field?

The term magnetic field represents a vector quantity that defines the influence of magnetism on a dynamic electric current, magnetic materials, and electric charges. The moving substances experience a specific magnitude of force perpendicular to the magnetic field and its velocity.

The magnetic field of a permanent magnet pull on or attracts ferromagnetic materials like iron. It may repel or draw in other magnetic substances depending on a few factors. In addition to that, a magnetic field whose magnitude or value varies with a change or shift in location will exert or apply a force on a variety of non-magnetic substances. It does so by exercising an influence on the motion or movement of the electrons in the outer atom.

A magnetic field surrounds different and diverse magnetized materials. It gets created or generated by electric currents like those applied in electromagnets. It also gets produced by the electric fields that do not remain consistent and vary with time. As the location changes or electric charges keep moving, the magnitude of the strength and the direction of a magnetic field varies. Thus, it gets described mathematically using a function. It is possible by allotting a vector quantity to each position or point of space, also known as a vector field.

What is meant by Hall Effect?

Hall Effect is the generation or production of a difference in the voltage present across an electrical conductor. It runs transverse to the electric current in the conducting material. Additionally, it works on an applied magnetic field that runs perpendicular to the current. Edwin hall was the first person to discover this phenomenon in 1879.

Hall Effect becomes visible or observable in a magnetic field applied perpendicularly. It runs across voltage contacts on the edge of a metal plate or semiconductor.

It displays the apparent reversal in sign compared to the standard Hall Effect. It depends solely on the current induced from within the void.

What is a Magnetometer?

A magnetometer refers to an electric appliance capable of assessing the value of a magnetic field in a specific place or area. The device also has the functions and features to measure the magnitude of the magnetic dipole moment of various magnetic constituents, materials, and substances. For example, it can gauge the required parameter for ferromagnets.

A magnetometer calculates the value by evaluating and judging the effect that the magnetic dipole moment applies or has on the induced current that originates in a particular current-carrying coil. Additionally, some magnetometers can estimate other factors of the magnetic field. They can consist of their relative change, strength, and direction.

What is a Gaussmeter?

A gaussmeter is another kind or variety of electrical device that can calculate the intensity of a constricted magnetic field and estimate its direction. It is also known as the modern version of a gauss magnetometer. It comprises parts such as a meter, a gauss sensor or probe, and a cable joining or connecting the two components. This appliance works by following the basis or principle of the Hall Effect discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879.

A gaussmeter displays the calculated measurements of an electromagnetic wave in Gauss (G), milliTesla (mT), microTesla (µT), or milliGauss (mG) units. It can detect and discover the dynamic electromagnetic fields associated with alternating current (AC) or the steady permanent magnetic fields related to direct current (DC).

A gaussmeter works primarily with and for small-sized magnetic fields. If the measurement needs to get done for a large one, the best choice of instrument is a tesla meter. It is similar to a gaussmeter but comes graduated in larger units of tesla.

What is a Teslameter?

A teslameter is a type of gaussmeter. It gets used to measure the intensity and direction of alternating current, pulse, and direct current magnetic fields. They work for the ones that have a significant area of coverage and spread. They calculate the values in units of tesla (T), microTesla (µT), or milliTesla(mT).

What are the Differences between a Magnetometer, Gaussmeter, and Teslameter?

To most people, a magnetometer, a gaussmeter, and a teslameter may seem the same. However, the three electrical devices have subtle yet significant differences among them. These dissimilarities determine their range and scope of application and the manner or fashion in which they can get used. They also establish the points of their pros and cons.

Some differences between a magnetometer, a gaussmeter, and a teslameter consist of the following:

  • Measurement Unit

A magnetic field is a vector quantity whose measurement value remains characterized by its direction and strength or magnitude. In general, the latter parameter gets represented in the unit of tesla in the SI system. It is gauss in the CGS system. The relation between the two is that one tesla is equal to 10,000 gauss.

Gaussmeters and teslameters are instruments that calculate the value of the intensity of a magnetic field in the gauss and tesla units, respectively. In a few cases or circumstances, the term magnetometer represents an electrical appliance that measures the magnitude less than one milliTesla (mT) and gaussmeter for those more than one milliTesla (mT).

  • Size of the Magnetic Field

A magnetometer can measure the intensity or strength of a magnetic field of considerable size. Hence, they can get used for the purpose in any corner of the Earth and even in space.

On the other hand, a gaussmeter and a teslameter calculate the same values of intensity. However, they do so for a comparatively smaller size of a magnetic field. Between the two, the latter instrument has the ability and capability of estimating the parameter for the larger field.

A gaussmeter and magnetometer can get differentiated on the basis or factor of the level of sensitivity they provide and use. The former are high-strength devices that calculate the intensity of the magnetic field by more than one milliTesla (mT). On the other hand, the latter gets used for applications related to high sensitivity of less than one milliTesla (mT).