Everything You Need to Know About Diabetes Mellitus

Written by on November 1, 2021 in Hazards, Issues & Diseases, Health, Prevention with 0 Comments
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The hormone named insulin helps glucose to be transformed into energy. Nevertheless, when the pancreas produces little or no insulin, or a person develops insulin insensitivity, using sugars as a fuel for a body becomes impossible, and the blood glucose level rises without restraints.

When this happens, a person is diagnosed with diabetes, and here comes the time to learn more about this condition. What are the differences between its types? What are the diabetes symptoms and diabetes risk factors? What happens when they are left ignored? All the answers can be found in this article.

Briefly about 3 Major Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Only 1-5% of people are diagnosed with rare types of DM ((e.g. neonatal diabetes, maturity onset diabetes of the young, chemical-induced diabetes, and others), while the most frequently met 3 types occur in up to 99% of the patients.

Even though there are only 3 main types, each person's treatment is unique and requires attention from their healthcare providers. Let's see what these types of DM have in common and what are their differences.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (T1DM), also called “insulin-dependent diabetes” and “juvenile diabetes”, is mostly diagnosed in kids and young adults. This type is considered hereditary. Nevertheless, there are other causes of T1DM: viral infections, diseases of the immune system, poor diet, and others.

In people with this type of diabetes, insulin-releasing β-cells (beta cells) are damaged and unable to release enough of the hormone to address increased blood glucose levels. As a result, type 1 diabetes management measures are all based on receiving daily insulin shots.

People with T1DM are often prescribed rapid- and short-acting insulin injections. The majority of the patients opt for insulin pumps as their go-to blood glucose control method. Continuous glucose monitoring is also a must.

Tests for T1DM:

  • Fasting blood sugar test;
  • HbA1c blood test;
  • Random blood glucose test.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is the most diagnosed one. The National Diabetes Statistics Report estimates that the share of T2DM is 90-95% of all cases.

Type 2 diabetes develops when a person has insulin resistance. It means that even though their pancreas produces enough insulin, it fails to maintain normal blood glucose levels. High blood sugar persists for a long time, causing irreversible damage to tiny blood vessels.

Unlike with T1DM, people diagnosed with T2DM don't have to rely on insulin only, even though insulin-based medications are still the most popular anti-diabetic treatments. However, if you have type 2 diabetes, you and your doctor have a choice between insulin, exenatide, diabetes pills, and other insulin sensitizers.

Tests for T2DM:

  • HbA1c blood test;
  • Fasting and random blood sugar tests;
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant women. It happens because the placenta releases a hormone that decreases the body's sensitivity to insulin, thus indirectly keeping a blood sugar level high.

As you can see, the type of diabetes diagnosed in expectant mothers resembles T2DM. Their β-cells produce insulin in sufficient amounts, and the problem is the body's insensitivity to the hormone. This similarity is not a coincidence, and those who develop gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes later in life.

Tests for GDM:

  • OGTT;
  • Glucose challenge test.

What Happens When High Blood Sugar Levels Are Left Untreated?

Everyone needs to know what the symptoms of diabetes look like. If you constantly feel increased thirst, effortlessly lose weight, have a family history of hyperglycemia, fail to eat a healthy diet, there is a high risk of developing diabetes.

When left to its own devices, diabetes affects the overall health of a person and causes further complications:

  • Microvascular and macrovascular complications;
  • High blood pressure;
  • Unhealthy changes in body weight;
  • Kidney disease;
  • Low blood sugar, and others.

To avoid these complications of diabetes, stick to a healthy lifestyle, opt for a balanced and low-glycemic diet, have enough physical activity, take blood tests regularly, and don't forget to treat diabetes with quality medications.

Summarizing

Managing diabetes with proper medications and getting their blood sugar tested regularly are important measures for every patient. When left unattended, the disease may cause serious complications, like kidney failure, poor blood flow, and others.

To be able to live an active life, people with diabetes must not ignore their doctors' advice and take all the prescribed diabetes medications. You can find them at https://insulin.store/. Luckily, there are plenty of accessible treatments today, and a doctor will support you and will help your insulin-producing cells to keep glucose levels managed.

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