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Artisan Robots with AI Smarts Will Juggle Tasks, Choose Tools, Mix and Match Recipes and Even Order Materials – All Without Human Help

Failure of a machine in a factory can shut it down. Lost production can cost millions of dollars per day. Component failures can devastate factories, power plants and battlefield equipment.

To return to operation, skilled technicians use all the tools in their kit – machining, bending, welding and surface treating, making just the right part as quickly and as accurately as possible. But there’s a declining number of technicians with the right skills, and the quality of things made by hand is subject to the skills and mood of the artisan on the day the part is made.

Both problems could soon be solved by artificially intelligent robotic technicians. These systems can take measurements; shape, cut or weld parts using varied tools; pass parts to specialized equipment; and even purchase needed materials – all without human intervention. Known as hybrid autonomous manufacturing, this process involves automated systems that seamlessly use multiple tools and techniques to build high-quality components where and when they are needed.

I am a professor of metallurgical engineering. My colleagues and I design the recipes to make materials and components with just the right internal structure to create properties like strength and fracture resistance. With a network of colleagues at Ohio State and other universities, I have been developing a plan to give birth to these autonomous artisans.

How things are made

Components are either mass-produced or custom-made.

Most things people touch daily have been mass-produced. Quality is assured by using well-honed processes based on testing and monitoring large numbers of parts and assuring the process is done the same way every time.

Custom fabrication – making components on demand – is often essential, sometimes to conform to a patient’s specific anatomy or to replace aircraft landing gear that was forged and is no longer being made. Processes for making metallic parts – material removal, deposition, deformation, transformation, inspection – can all be done with small tools, with incremental actions rather than the kind of bulk processes, usually with big tools and dies, used in mass production.

Automation has long been a part of mass production, which includes sophisticated robots that handle parts and weld on automobile assembly lines. Additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3D printing, is increasingly being used with a variety of materials to make components.

Now in development are robotic blacksmiths – robots that can hammer metallic parts into shape instead of cutting, building up or molding them.

Robotic arms reach into the frame of a car being manufactured

Robots have been building cars for decades, but they typically carry out simple, repetitive tasks that don’t require decision-making. Lenny Kuhne/Unsplash

Automated customization – not an oxymoron

To automate custom fabrication, my colleagues and I are developing an automated suite of tools that can carry out all the steps for making a wide range of components, using multiple processes without human intervention. Sensors will also be central to hybrid autonomous manufacturing to control the processes and maintain and assure quality.

Such autonomous manufacturing systems will make the myriad decisions needed to create a component of the right strength, size and surface finish. Artificial intelligence will be required to handle the enormous number of choices of materials, machine settings and process sequences. Rather than finding a mass production recipe and never deviating, these autonomous manufacturing systems will choose from a very large set of possible recipes to create parts, and will have the intelligence to assure that the chosen path produces components with the appropriate material properties.

Robots could either position small tools on manufactured component or transfer the component from one piece of equipment to another. A fully autonomous system could manufacture a wide range of products with a versatile set of tools. The systems could source materials and possibly even send work out to specialized cutting and deformation tools, just like a human artisan.

The production rate of such systems would not rival those of mass production, but because robots can work continuously they can be more productive than human technicians are. Data from sensors provide a digital record of all the steps and processes with critical temperatures, machine settings and even images. This record can assure quality by, for example, making sure the material was deformed the right amount and cracks were not produced during the process and covered up.

Manufacturing at or near the operating room is one example of a process that can be enabled with hybrid autonomous manufacturing. Often when patients with bone fractures undergo trauma surgery, metallic plates of varied shapes are required to hold bones together for healing. These are often created in the operating room, where the surgeon bends plates to fit the patient, sometimes using a 3D-printed model created from medical images of the patient as a form to bend the metal against.

Bending by hand is slow and imprecise, and stressing the plate in the wrong place can cause it to fracture. A robotic technician could cut and bend and finish a plate before surgery. Patients do better and save money if they spend less time in the hospital.

The road to robotic artisans

Numerous companies are now showing the way forward in autonomous manufacturing, including three venture-funded startups. FormLogic is developing automated high-quality machine shops. Path Robotics is putting the skills of a welder into a robot. And Machina Labs is out to create robotic blacksmiths. Other companies are developing systems to automate design and logistics.

Hybridization – the ability to carry out different tasks in different ways with multiple tools – is the next step. The key pieces of hybrid autonomous manufacturing exist now, and fully autonomous systems could be common in a decade. Companies adopting this approach to custom fabrication will need to draw on a new generation of students with the skills to combine these technologies.

The investments proposed in the United States Innovation and Competition Act passed by the Senate on June 8, 2021, and those in the Biden administration’s proposed American Jobs Plan could support the development of these kinds of advanced manufacturing technologies. Funds for the development of advanced manufacturing technologies and the associated skills base could make U.S. manufacturing more competitive.

This article is republished from The Conversation, a nonprofit news site dedicated to sharing ideas from academic experts. It was written by: , The Ohio State University

About the Author
Glenn S. Daehn has received funding from the National Science Foundation and serves on the Advisory Board of FormLogic.




New Discovery Shows Human Cells Can Write RNA Sequences into DNA

Cells contain machinery that duplicates DNA into a new set that goes into a newly formed cell. That same class of machines, called polymerases, also build RNA messages, which are like notes copied from the central DNA repository of recipes, so they can be read more efficiently into proteins. But polymerases were thought to only work in one direction DNA into DNA or RNA. This prevents RNA messages from being rewritten back into the master recipe book of genomic DNA. Now, Thomas Jefferson University researchers provide the first evidence that RNA segments can be written back into DNA, which potentially challenges the central dogma in biology and could have wide implications affecting many fields of biology.

“This work opens the door to many other studies that will help us understand the significance of having a mechanism for converting RNA messages into DNA in our own cells,” says Richard Pomerantz, Ph.D., associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Thomas Jefferson University. “The reality that a human polymerase can do this with high efficiency, raises many questions.” For example, this finding suggests that RNA messages can be used as templates for repairing or re-writing genomic DNA.

The work was published June 11th in the journal Science Advances.

Together with first author Gurushankar Chandramouly and other collaborators, Dr. Pomerantz’s team started by investigating one very unusual polymerase, called polymerase theta. Of the 14 DNA polymerases in mammalian cells, only three do the bulk of the work of duplicating the entire genome to prepare for cell division. The remaining 11 are mostly involved in detecting and making repairs when there’s a break or error in the DNA strands. Polymerase theta repairs DNA, but is very error-prone and makes many errors or mutations. The researchers, therefore, noticed that some of polymerase theta’s “bad” qualities were ones it shared with another cellular machine, albeit one more common in viruses—the reverse transcriptase. Like Pol theta, HIV reverse transcriptase acts as a DNA polymerase, but can also bind RNA and read RNA back into a DNA strand.

In a series of elegant experiments, the researchers tested polymerase theta against the reverse transcriptase from HIV, which is one of the best-studied of its kind. They showed that polymerase theta was capable of converting RNA messages into DNA, which it did as well as HIV reverse transcriptase, and that it actually did a better job than when duplicating DNA to DNA. Polymerase theta was more efficient and introduced fewer errors when using an RNA template to write new DNA messages, than when duplicating DNA into DNA, suggesting that this function could be its primary purpose in the cell.

The group collaborated with Dr. Xiaojiang S. Chen’s lab at USC and used X-ray crystallography to define the structure and found that this molecule was able to change shape in order to accommodate the more bulky RNA molecule—a feat unique among polymerases.

“Our research suggests that polymerase theta’s main function is to act as a reverse transcriptase,” says Dr. Pomerantz. “In healthy cells, the purpose of this molecule may be toward RNA-mediated DNA repair. In unhealthy cells, such as cancer cells, polymerase theta is highly expressed and promotes cancer cell growth and drug resistance. It will be exciting to further understand how polymerase theta’s activity on RNA contributes to DNA repair and cancer cell proliferation.”

More information: Polθ reverse transcribes RNA and promotes RNA-templated DNA repair, Science Advances (2021). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf1771

Journal information: Science Advances

Provided by Thomas Jefferson University

Source: phys.org




Researchers Create Quantum Microscope that Can See the Impossible

Artist’s impression of UQ’s new quantum microscope in action. Credit: The University of Queensland

In a major scientific leap, University of Queensland researchers have created a quantum microscope that can reveal biological structures that would otherwise be impossible to see.

This paves the way for applications in biotechnology and could extend far beyond this into areas ranging from navigation to medical imaging.

The  is powered by the science of quantum entanglement, an effect Einstein described as “spooky interactions at a distance”.

Professor Warwick Bowen, from UQ’s Quantum Optics Lab and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems (EQUS), said it was the first entanglement-based sensor with performance beyond the best possible existing technology.

“This breakthrough will spark all sorts of new technologies—from better navigation systems to better MRI machines, you name it,” Professor Bowen said.

“Entanglement is thought to lie at the heart of a quantum revolution.

“We’ve finally demonstrated that sensors that use it can supersede existing, non-quantum technology.

“This is exciting—it’s the first proof of the paradigm-changing potential of entanglement for sensing.”

Australia’s Quantum Technologies Roadmap sees quantum sensors spurring a new wave of technological innovation in healthcare, engineering, transport, and resources.

Australian researchers create quantum microscope that can see the impossible

UQ team researchers (counter-clockwise from bottom-left) Caxtere Casacio, Warwick Bowen, Lars Madsen, and Waleed Muhammad aligning the quantum microscope. Credit: The University of Queensland

A major success of the team’s quantum microscope was its ability to catapult over a ‘hard barrier’ in traditional light-based microscopy.

UQ team researchers (counter-clockwise from bottom-left) Caxtere Casacio, Warwick Bowen, Lars Madsen, and Waleed Muhammad aligning the quantum microscope.

“The best light microscopes use bright lasers that are billions of times brighter than the sun,” Professor Bowen said.

“Fragile biological systems like a human cell can only survive a short time in them and this is a major roadblock.

“The quantum  in our microscope provides 35 percent improved clarity without destroying the cell, allowing us to see minute biological structures that would otherwise be invisible.

“The benefits are obvious—from a better understanding of living systems to improved diagnostic technologies.”

Professor Bowen said there were potentially boundless opportunities for  in technology.

Researchers create quantum microscope that can see the impossible

UQ’s quantum microscope, ready to zero in on previously impossible-to-see biology. Credit: The University of Queensland

“Entanglement is set to revolutionize computing, communication, and sensing,” he said.

“Absolutely secure communication was demonstrated some decades ago as the first demonstration of absolute quantum advantage over conventional technologies.

“Computing faster than any possible conventional computer was demonstrated by Google two years ago, as the first demonstration of absolute advantage in computing.

“The last piece in the puzzle was sensing, and we’ve now closed that gap.

“This opens the door for some wide-ranging technological revolutions.”

The research is published in Nature.




A Volcanic Eruption 39 Million Years Ago Buried a Forest in Peru – Now the Petrified Trees are Revealing South America’s Primeval History

With the evidence uncovered by paleontologists, an artist sketched El Bosque Petrificado Piedra Chamana as it might have looked long before humans. Mariah Slovacek/NPS-GIP

In the hills outside the small village of Sexi, Peru, a fossil forest holds secrets about South America’s past millions of years ago.

When we first visited these petrified trees more than 20 years ago, not much was known about their age or how they came to be preserved. We started by dating the rocks and studying the volcanic processes that preserved the fossils. From there, we began to piece together the story of the forest, starting from the day 39 million years ago when a volcano erupted in northern Peru.

Ash rained down on the forest that day, stripping leaves from the trees. Then flows of ashy material moved through, breaking off the trees and carrying them like logs in a river to the area where they were buried and preserved. Millions of years later, after the modern-day Andes rose and carried the fossils with them, the rocks were exposed to the forces of erosion, and the fossil woods and leaves again saw the light of day.

This petrified forest, El Bosque Perificado Piedra Chamana, is the first fossil forest from the South American tropics to be studied in detail. It is helping paleontologists like us to understand the history of the megadiverse forests of the New World tropics and the past climates and environments of South America.

By examining thin slices of petrified wood under microscopes, we were able to map out the mix of trees that thrived here long before humans existed.

An artist's illustrations of each of the most common variety of trees found, plus cross-sections of the fossil wood as seen under a microscope

An artist’s illustrations of each of the most common variety of trees found, plus cross-sections of the fossil wood as seen under a microscope

Petrified wood under a microscope

To figure out the types of trees that had been growing in the forest before the eruption, we needed thin samples of the petrified wood that could be studied under a microscope. That was not so easy because of the volume and diversity of fossil wood at the site.

We tried to sample the diversity of the woods by relying on features that could be observed with the naked eye or with small hand-held microscopes, things like the arrangement and width of the vessels that carry water upwards within the tree or the presence of tree rings. Then we cut small blocks from the specimens, and from those, we were able to prepare petrographic thin sections in three planes. Each plane gives us a different view of the tree’s anatomy. They allow us to see many detailed features relating to the vessels, the wood fibers, and the living-tissue component of the wood.

Three magnified cross-sections from a tree fossil

Three magnified cross-sections from a tree fossil

Based on these features, we consulted past studies and used information in wood databases to find out what types of trees were present.

Clues in the woods and leaves

Many of the fossil trees have close relatives in the present-day lowland tropical forests of South America.

One has features typical of lianas, which are woody vines. Others appear to have been large canopy trees, including relatives of modern Ceiba. We also found trees well known in South America’s forests like Hura, or sandbox tree; Anacardium, a type of cashew tree; and Ochroma, or balsa. The largest specimen at the Sexi site – a fossil trunk about 2.5 feet (75 cm) in diameter – has features like those of Cynometra, a tree in the legume family.

The discovery of mangrove, Avicennia, was more evidence that the forest was growing at a low elevation near the sea before the Andes rose.

The fossil leaves we found provided another clue to the past. All had smooth edges, rather than the toothed edges or lobes that are more common in the cooler climates of the mid-to-high latitudes, indicating that the forest experienced quite warm conditions. We know the forest was growing at a time in the geologic past when the Earth was much warmer than today.

Fossilized leaves with clear detail.

Fossilized leaves with clear detail.

Although there are many similarities between the petrified forest and present-day Amazonian forests, some of the fossil trees have unusual anatomical features in the South American tropics. One is a species of Dipterocarpaceae, a group that has only one other representative in South America but that is common today in the rainforests of South Asia.

An artist brings the forest to life

Our concept of what this ancient forest was like expanded when we had an opportunity to collaborate with an artist at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument in Colorado to reconstruct the forest and landscape. Other locations with fossil trees include Florissant, which has giant petrified redwood stumps, and Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona.

Working with the artist, Mariah Slovacek, who is also a paleontologist, made us think critically about many things: What would the forest have looked like? Were the trees evergreen or deciduous? Which were tall and which shorter? What would they have looked like in flower or fruit?

We knew from our investigation that many of the fossil trees were likely to have been growing in a streamside or flooded-forest location, but what about the vegetation growing back from the watercourses on higher ground? Would the hills have been forested or supported drier-adapted vegetation? Mariah researched today’s relatives of the trees we identified for clues to what they might have looked like, such as what shape and color their flowers or fruits might have been.

A large petrified log on open ground with rugged hills in the background

A large petrified log on open ground with rugged hills in the background

No fossils of mammals, birds, or reptiles from the same time period have been found at the Sexi site, but the ancient forest certainly would have supported a diversity of wildlife. Birds had diversified by that time, and reptiles in the crocodile family had long swum the tropical seas.

Recent paleontological discoveries found that two important groups of animals – monkeys and caviomorph rodents, which include guinea pigs – had arrived on the continent at about the time the fossil forest was growing.

With this information, Mariah was able to populate the ancient forest. The result is a lush, waterside forest of tall flowering trees and woody vines. Birds swoop through the air and crocodile splashes just offshore. You can almost imagine that you were there in the world of 39 million years ago.

This article is republished from The Conversation, a nonprofit news site dedicated to sharing ideas from academic experts. It was written by: Deborah WoodcockClark University, and Herb MeyerNational Park Service.

Authors

Research Scientist, Clark University

Deborah Woodcock has received funding from the American Philosophical Society, the National Science Foundation, and National Geographic.

Paleontologist, National Park Service

Herb Meyer has been supported in this project as an employee of the National Park Service, with additional funding provided by The Friends of the Florissant Fossil Beds, the National Science Foundation, and National Geographic.




How To Watch the ‘Ring of Fire’ Solar Eclipse ONLINE on June 10

By: Elizabeth Howe | Space.com

If you can’t catch the next solar eclipse in person, there are several places where you can watch the event live.

The 2021 “ring of fire” annular solar eclipse on Thursday (June 10) will be partially visible from the United States, northern Canada, Europe, northern Asia, Russia and Greenland, according to Time and Date. Space.com has a detailed guide about how to view the eclipse safely in the United States — make sure never to look at the sun without proper equipment, which is listed in the Space.com article.

If you can’t see the eclipse due to geography, cloudy conditions or quarantine restrictions, several online streams have you covered.

‘Ring of fire’ eclipse 2021: When, where and how to see the annular solar eclipse on June 10

Virtual Telescope Project

The Virtual Telescope Project, which is based near Rome, will host yet another livestream with international participation from observers in Canada based in Ontario (Toronto, Thunder Bay and Ottawa), British Columbia (Victoria) and New Brunswick (Saint John). The event starts at 4 a.m. EDT (0900 GMT), and you can watch it live on YouTube or via The Virtual Telescope Project’s website.

NASA

NASA will stream a live webcast showing views of the partial solar eclipse (not the “ring of fire” peak) on NASA TV.

The livestream will begin at 5 a.m. EDT (0900 GMT), but will appear dark until sunrise at 5:47 a.m. EDT (0947 GMT). The webcast is highly dependent on weather, NASA officials said, but will be accessible via the agency’s public NASA TV channel, which you can find on YouTube here.

TimeandDate.com

TimeandDate.com will livestream the eclipse on YouTube at 5 a.m. EDT (1000 GMT) and also has a web page showcasing several streaming partners that will be helping out from the United States and Canada.

Royal Observatory Greenwich

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FuEBLLN-VQg

In the United Kingdom, Royal Museums Greenwich (near London) is hosting a livestream from the Royal Observatory, which is the traditionally situated location of the prime meridian. The livestream starts at 5:05 a.m. EDT (1005 GMT) on both Facebook and YouTube.

“Our expert astronomy team will help explain the science of solar eclipses and answer all your space questions,” the observatory said in a statement. “You’ll see exactly the same view as our astronomers, with a live telescope feed of the Sun from our state-of-the-art Annie Maunder Astrographic Telescope.”

The next solar eclipse — which is total in Antarctica and partial in South Africa and the south Atlantic — will take place on Dec. 4, according to NASA. Solar eclipses happen when the moon moves between the Earth and the sun, but due to the small size of our moon compared with our solar neighbor, catching a total eclipse is a relatively rare event.

Note: If you snap an amazing night sky picture and would like to share it with Space.com’s readers, send your photos, comments, and your name and location to spacephotos@space.com. This story was updated on June 9 to include NASA’s webcast details.

Follow Elizabeth Howell on Twitter @howellspace. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook. 




Get Ready for a Brilliant and Rare “Ring of Fire” Solar Eclipse on June 10, 2021

By | The Mind Unleashed

Last month, stargazers were treated to a gorgeous “super flower blood moon” lunar eclipse. However, the event was by no means the only spectacle to grace our skies, and next week will give us an even greater treat – a rare “ring of fire” solar eclipse.

The solar eclipse is primed to take place on June 10 and will entail the fringes of the moon being enshrouded in what appears to be a blazing ring of fire.

An annular solar eclipse takes place when the moon passes between the earth and the sun. However, the moon will not entirely cover the sun – leaving stargazers with the brilliant sight of a glowing ring of sunlight surrounding the moon.

As EarthSky explains:

“A bright annulus – or ring – will surround the new moon silhouette at mid-eclipse. It’s the outer rim of the sun, not quite hidden from view. People have taken to calling these ‘ring of fire’ eclipses. Essentially, they are partial eclipses, albeit very dramatic ones.”

The eclipse won’t be a very long event, but it also won’t be too brief – the eclipse is expected to last about an hour and forty minutes, with the moon being situated directly in front of the sun for a maximum duration of three minutes and 51 seconds.

The eclipse’s narrow path will be visible in its entirety in parts of the northern regions of Canada, Greenland, the Arctic Ocean, and Siberia. It will be visible partially for the remainder of northeastern North America, Northern Europe, and Asia.

“In North America, the most ideally situated metropolitan areas to view the eclipse at sunrise are Toronto, Philadelphia, and New York,” note the Great American Eclipse website.

The partial eclipse will begin at around 4:12 a.m. ET and will stretch into 9:11 a.m. However, the full eclipse of the sun will occur at 6:53 a.m. ET.




NASA Releases Exoplanet Video Map Featuring 4,000 Alien Worlds

NASA has confirmed the existence of more than 4,300 exoplanets. Do you think some of them may host alien life?

Earth is so far the only known planet in the universe to support life as we know it. But that doesn’t mean that there aren’t similar planets to Earth out there and that we are alone in the vastness of space.

And we know that there are plenty of alien worlds out there.

But this wasn’t always the case.

Before 1991, when the first exoplanet was discovered, we didn’t know whether there were any planets beyond our solar system.

Sure, we theorized about them, but we didn’t have evidence to support the guesswork.

But after October 1991, things changed.

We learned that our solar system isn’t the only one in space, home to different types of planets.

Searching for exoplanets has taken us a long way since 1991.

NASA confirmed the existence of the 4,000th exoplanet and is celebrating the discovery with a stunning, cosmic map, featuring all of the exoplanets that have been found to date.

The incredible animated cosmic map was created by Matt Russo, while Andrew Santaguida made the sound, both members of a science-art project called system Sound. The video map was published on YouTube and described on NASA’s Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) site.

The video published on YouTube highlights the thousands of exoplanets in sound and light, showing the discovery of the alien worlds in chronological order, from the first confirmed detection in 1992.

The Kepler Space Telescope is to thank for most of the exploring. The now-retired observatory launched in 2009 has spent a decade orbiting the sun, and exploring deep space, searching for exoplanets and the many cosmic mysteries.

Retired in 2018, the Keppler space telescope has gathered 478 gigabytes of data, discovering numerous exoplanets as well as 61 supernovae.

NASA replaced Kepler with the new planet-hunting TESS telescope.

TESS has the ability to search a much greater patch of the sky and is expected to discover as many as 20,000 planets in just a few years.

Update January 2021

As of January 23, 2021, NASA has confirmed a total of 4331 exoplanets. There are 5708 candidates in 3212 solar systems.

By Ivan Petricevic | curiosmos.com

Ivan is a freelance writer, editor-in-chief of ancient-code.com, he also writes for EWAO, Shares Knowledge, Svemir Online, and Ancient Origins.

History, Archaeology, Space, and world mysteries are some of the topics he writes about.




Michio Kaku’s Lifelong Search for ‘The God Equation”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zt9M-0UnFyg

Video Source: Cuckoo for Kaku

Michio Kaku talks about his lifelong search for ‘The God Equation” (the theory of everything) and some of the mysteries that the equation would solve



Couple Discovers Massive, Sprawling ‘Lava Tube’ Cave Underneath Oregon Home

By | The Mind Unleashed

When a realtor warned Suzanne and James Brierley of Bend, Oregon, that their new property had a small cave located somewhere, the couple was hardly concerned.

However, since then the homeowners have discovered that this wasn’t just any cave but was a huge lava tube large enough to stand in, reports KTVZ.

The lava tube takes the form of a small hole in the side of a hill, but once one enters, the lava tube is stunningly huge – with some parts of the cave high enough for the Brierleys to not even be able to reach their ceiling.

Lava tubes are natural formations that are created when flowing lava escapes an underground volcanic vent.

Essentially a cave, these tubes once carried magma from eruptions out to sea before cooling and typically collapsing. However, many old lava tubes remain and are popular with some hikers.

In places like Hawaii’s Big Island, lava tubes are everywhere and are home to species adapted to these unique locations. Native Hawaiians also interred their dead in the caves and used them for spiritual purposes.

However, according to local experts, the sprawling cave underneath the Brierleys’ property – or the huge complex of caves in the area – hasn’t yet been fully explored.

Either way, the couple is now looking to sell the property. Considering that it includes such an alluring find underneath, it’s likely that they’ll have no shortage of prospective buyers.




Repetitive Stupidity in Commercials is Programming the Hive Subconscious Mind

By Dylan Charles | Waking Times

At the heart of the social insanity, mindless acquiescence to authority, and automatic compliance with any and every new government rule or regulation, is a deliberate effort to dumb down the population. It takes place in the halls of our educational institutions, and it comes home with us at night to our television screens.

According to educational whistleblower and author of The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America, Charlotte Iserbyt:

“…over a thirty- to fifty-year period-what must surely amount to tons of materials containing irrefutable proof, in the education change agents’ own words, of deliberate, malicious intent to achieve behavioral changes in students/parents/society which have nothing to do with commonly understood educational objectives.”

We know the education system is designed to produce drones, but today I’d like to bring your attention to the role television commercials play in engineering our society toward entropy, division, conformity, and decay.

Consider at once this ridiculous advertisement from Australia, where a wine company is hoping you’ll drink more of their booze after watching a computer-generated kangaroo liven up the party while getting the attention of supermodels. They overtly twist their brand name, Yellowtail, into crude sexual innuendo, appealing to your most base desires.

Young children learn primarily by observation of what other people do. If adults do stupid things, kids do stupid things. So it is as well with the so-called mature adults among us, who imitate each other in order to fit with each other.

When the templates for acceptable social behavior are pounded into our heads from television, humans emulate the celebrities, actors, and beauties on the screen. And commercials are the worst, as their rapid, attention deficit generating format are repeated again and again so as to become implanted in our minds.

Couple this with the fact that we are technologically isolated (while highly connected) in today’s society, and as such, mass media serves as a kind of common language, a way of relating to one another, and of establishing the broadcast-level reality. Now you have a world of people who take cues from advertisers, which are adopted by others, eventually snowballing into a real-life Idiocracy.

Here, Devour frozen foods has altogether given up on subtlety, turning the experience of eating processed foods laden with preservatives, colorants, and other chemicals, into an orgasm.

And in this creepy version, again for Devour processed foods, a drone-like office employee is so dumb, and so sexually confused, that he talks dirty to his plastic dish of synthetic garbage.

The corporate-controlled consumer matrix, which now guides the development of our cities and social lives, became a cultural imperative with the help of the scientific development of product marketing. Also known as corporate propaganda, it was pioneered mid-twentieth century by the author of the book Propaganda, Edward Bernays, who himself best explains the engineered scheme at play in pop culture:

“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of…in almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons…who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires that control the public mind.” ~Edward Bernays

He would know. His ideas were heavily influenced by the work of his uncle, Sigmund Freud, the so-called father of modern psychology, who developed theories that still govern much of our understanding of the human psyche. He’s most recognized for the idea that humans are motivated first and foremost by the drive to fornicate. Bernays’ contribution was linking products to sex, with marketing that jars the perception of reality.

In this classic piece of commercial art, Axe Body Spray does a splendid version of the time-honored marketing illusion that the purchase of a product will bring sex with beautiful women.

https://youtu.be/I9tWZB7OUSU

A major purpose of this type of marketing is to suspend disbelief, which is a visual procedure that leads to the acceptance of outlandish claims. Commercials are the perfect open format for messing with people’s heads, where superstar, perfect people present conflicting, senseless ideas.

For its incredibly stupid product, MiO Liquid Water Enhancer goes far beyond the pale in this commercial where grown men talk about ‘squirting’ chemicals like propylene glycol into the water to make it taste good.

“The second ingredient in these little bottles is propylene glycol, a preservative, thickening agent, and stabilizer, also used as antifreeze to de-ice airplanes, as a plasticizer to make polyester resins, and found in electronic cigarettes.” [Source]

https://youtu.be/tXG0PACMUOo

Fifty-plus years of ridiculous advertising instructing our culture is bearing its intended fruit: a society of entitled, impatient, crass, unreasonable, and shallow people has emerged. In this climate, unity is impossible and the masses are more impressionable than ever, thus, the controllers are free to have their way with us.

Here, these two clowns in a Sonic fast-food restaurant commercial rattle on in a pointless stream-of-consciousness conversation that links chicken wings (the food) with hooking up with women, which have nothing at all to do with each other in real life.

It’s called television programming for a reason, and it is paid for by advertisers who tinker with society by bombarding us with absurdity and stupidity.

It could be entertainment.

And it could also be another mechanism of social control, urging your subconscious mind to buy the stuff you don’t need, to consume products and chemicals that are harmful to you, to behave immaturely and irrationally, to over-sexualize everything, to hold false expectations, and to participate in a manufactured reality that ensures self-destruction.

You decide.

I recently had a conversation with Jason Christoff about this, and he explains in detail how television is being used to program your subconscious mind into seeking mediocrity. Check that out HERE.

In the end, though, it’s your mind and it’s your responsibility to curate the contents of your mind in order to create a life worth living. As a self-mastery coach, I help people find expression for their deepest truths in a world full of deceit and lies.

About the Author

Dylan Charles is a self-mastery coach, the editor of Waking Times, and host of the Battered Souls podcast. His personal journey is deeply inspired by shamanic plant medicines and the arts of Kung Fu, Qi Gong, and Yoga. After seven years of living in Costa Rica, he now lives in the Blue Ridge Mountains, where he practices Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and enjoys spending time with family. He has written hundreds of articles, reaching and inspiring millions of people around the world.

Dylan is available for interviews and podcasts. Contact him at WakingTimes@gmail.com.

This article (Repetitive Stupidity in Commercials is Programming the Hive Subconscious Mind) was originally created and published by Waking Times and is published here under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Dylan Charles and WakingTimes.com. It may be re-posted freely with proper attribution, author bio, and this copyright statement.




Supermoon! Red Blood Lunar Eclipse! It’s All Happening At Once, but What Does That Mean?

A series of images taken aboard the amphibious assault ship USS Boxer (LHD 4) shows the moon during a full lunar eclipse. U.S. Navy/Joshua Valcarcel/WikimediaCommons

By | The Conversation

The first lunar eclipse of 2021 is going to happen during the early hours of May 26. But this is going to be an especially superlunar event, as it will be a supermoon, a lunar eclipse, and a red blood moon all at once. So what does this all mean?

What’s a super moon?

supermoon occurs when a full or new moon coincides with the Moon’s closest approach to the Earth.

White lines showing the oblong shape of the moon's orbit.

The Moon’s orbit is not a perfect circle as it slowly rotates around Earth. Rfassbind/WikimediaCommons

 

The Moon’s orbit around Earth is not perfectly circular. This means the Moon’s distance from Earth varies as it goes around the planet. The closest point in the orbit, called the perigee, is roughly 28,000 miles closer to Earth than the farthest point of the orbit. A full moon that happens near the perigee is called a supermoon.

So why is it super? The relatively close proximity of the Moon makes it seem a little bit bigger and brighter than usual, though the difference between a supermoon and a normal moon is usually hard to notice unless you’re looking at two pictures side by side.

How does a lunar eclipse work?

A lunar eclipse happens when the Earth’s shadow covers all or part of the Moon. This can only happen during a full moon, so first, it helps to understand what makes a full moon.

Like the Earth, half of the Moon is illuminated by the sun at any one time. A full moon happens when the Moon and the Sun are on opposite sides of the Earth. This allows you to see the entire lit-up side, which looks like a round disc in the night sky.

If the Moon had a totally flat orbit, every full moon would be a lunar eclipse. But the Moon’s orbit is tilted by about 5 degrees relative to Earth’s orbit. So, most of the time a full moon ends up a little above or below the shadow cast by the Earth.

A diagram showing the orbits of the Earth and the moon and Earth's shadow.

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through Earth’s shadow. Sagredo/WikimediaCommons

But twice in each lunar orbit, the Moon is on the same horizontal plane as both the Earth and Sun. If this corresponds to a full moon, the Sun, the Earth and the Moon will form a straight line and the Moon will pass through the Earth’s shadow. This results in a total lunar eclipse.

To see a lunar eclipse, you need to be on the night side of the Earth while the Moon passes through the shadow. The best place to see the eclipse on May 26, 2021, will be the middle of the Pacific Ocean, Australia, the East Coast of Asia, and the West Coast of the Americas. It will be visible on the eastern half of the U.S., but only in the very earliest stages before the Moon sets.

Why does the moon look red?

When the Moon is completely covered by Earth’s shadow it will darken, but doesn’t go completely black. Instead, it takes on a red color, which is why total lunar eclipses are sometimes called red or blood moons.

[Like what you’ve read? Want more? Sign up for The Conversation’s daily newsletter.]

Sunlight contains all colors of visible light. The particles of gas that makeup Earth’s atmosphere are more likely to scatter blue wavelengths of light while redder wavelengths pass through. This is called Rayleigh scattering, and it’s why the sky is blue and sunrises and sunsets are often red.

In the case of a lunar eclipse, red light can pass through the Earth’s atmosphere and is refracted – or bent – toward the Moon, while blue light is filtered out. This leaves the moon with a pale reddish hue during an eclipse.

Hopefully, you will be able to go see this super lunar eclipse. When you do, now you will know exactly what makes for such a special sight.




How to Hear the Whisper of Wisdom Beneath the Ego’s Cries

Most of us have heard of the ego and Sigmund Freud’s work around it which tells us that it’s development is a necessary part of who we are.  Without it, there is no “I” for us to identify with. Freud goes onto claim that without the ego, our minds would have no conscious way to comprehend where “we” end and the rest of the world “begins”. Image result for quotes on the ego freud

I’ve always been a HUGE fan of Freud’s (more so around his less-popular theories on sexuality) and completely agree that without our egos, we would all be leaning toward completely unmotivated. The ego, if used properly as the tool is it meant to be, can show us areas within ourselves that still need healing. The trick, however, to working with the ego is to remember that it does WHATEVER it takes to prevent expansion, growth, change and pretty much anything outside of your comfort zone. It is an expert at convincing you that you are making good, productive choices for yourself when in actuality you literally could be setting lit matches to your proverbial treehouse.

So, the key here is to first study the ego and figure out exactly how it works and maneuvers. Guaranteed it is always sneaky, coercive, and slick in how it will make suggestions for your next move, word or action. But once we know how it works, we’ve pretty much disabled out ego’s best weapon (stealth). And now, we just need to keep playing the game and observing.

As we watch our ego in play we will begin to see patterns emerge which will make clear exactly how we are “still stuck” in life situations we swore to ourselves we would’ve had resolved weeks, months or even years ago. We will begin to see how our ego was the one whispering in our ear that “He’ll change and treat me with kindness if I just stick around long enough and prove how much I love him.” or “I deserve to eat this tub of ice cream because I had such a bad day today.”

There are ENDLESS examples that we could list here, but the point is, anything you can think of where you’re subconscious mind convinced you to do something that was not in your best interest, that was not serving your highest Self, was the workings of your EGO doing what it does best and keeping you in the same little box it has grown to love and adore to keep you living small!

So, how do we beat this little trickster at its’ own game? First, we need to find that place in our hearts to stop looking at the ego through eyes of judgment and see it through the eyes of love. Only then can we shift the energy around our ego from one of annoyance and avoidance to one of willingness to integrate what we can learn from it. And eventually, this process will allow us to grow past the blocks that the ego has previously succeeded with throwing onto our path.

When we know ahead of time the signature signs that certain thoughts, motivations, reactions, etc. are ego-driven, then we are empowered with the knowledge of how to take the next best step. And an uninformed person with a leading ego might end up writing a bunch of accusatory emails they later regret, or shout at their children for no reason, or sabotage a health regimen they’ve put in place for themselves. Why? Because their ego was successful in convincing them it was in their best interest in that particular moment, and because they were in “reactive” mode (letting the outer world determine their moods, thoughts, next move, etc.) they went with it. Related image

This is the difference between living a life of struggle and living a life of true empowerment. As we learn to master the latter, of course, we may shift back and forth between the two as with anything it’s definitely a learning process. However, the more you take the time to observe yourself and your ego the more familiar you become with it all and the simpler it becomes to stay in PRO-active mode.

Once you get a taste of empowered living, there’s no giving that up, there’s no going back to sleep. It would be like locking away your most valuable tool and never using it again; because you have seen how when you move from a proactive, empowered place, the game is yours and YOU now make the rules. Do you feel the difference there? Between insecure, needy, fear-based ego and secured, empowered, healthy ego? Image result for quotes on the ego freud

I truly believe the ego is meant to help humanity, not harm it. It is only when we as individuals allow our minds and actions to be ruled by ego does it negatively affect our lives and the lives of those around us. But the ego is best used as a compass of sorts, pointing the way to what areas within us need healing and integration so we can rise up energetically and show up in our lives as we were meant to; connected, yet unique slivers of cosmic Creator Consciousness.

If we listen closely, there is another voice underneath the egos’ loudness that speaks only Truth and has only our best interest in mind. This voice belongs to our intuition, our Higher Selves (Spirit) and if we wish to master the use of our egos, it is wise to let it be guided by Spirit. This is how we develop “healthy” egos that allow us to speak up for ourselves, say no to people with feeling guilty, say yes to people without feeling drained, speak our Truth, and stand authentically in our lives without feeling insecure or feeling the need to incessantly compare ourselves to others.

Another gauge of a healthy ego is that we are okay spending time with ourselves and doing things on our own. We really only feel the need to reach out for assistance when truly necessary and learn to truly value the time, energy and presence of others – because that is how much we now value our own time, energy and presence.

Much love and have a most excellent weekend! <3

 

tamaraTamara Rant is a Co-Editor/Writer for CLN as well as a Licensed Reiki Master, heart-centered Graphic Designer and a progressive voice in social media activism & awareness. She is an avid lover of all things Quantum Physics and Spirituality. Connect with Tamara by visiting Prana Paws/Healing Hearts Reiki or go to RantDesignMedia.com

Tamara posts new original articles to CLN every Saturday.

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New Evidence of How and When the Milky Way Came Together

Spiral galaxy illustration.
Credit: © AlexMit / 123RF.com

By Jeff Grabmeier | Science Daily

New research provides the best evidence to date into the timing of how our early Milky Way came together, including the merger with a key satellite galaxy.

Using relatively new methods in astronomy, the researchers were able to identify the most precise ages currently possible for a sample of about a hundred red giant stars in the galaxy.

With this and other data, the researchers were able to show what was happening when the Milky Way merged with an orbiting satellite galaxy, known as Gaia-Enceladus, about 10 billion years ago.

Their results were published today (May 17, 2021) in the journal Nature Astronomy.

“Our evidence suggests that when the merger occurred, the Milky Way had already formed a large population of its own stars,” said Fiorenzo Vincenzo, co-author of the study and a fellow in The Ohio State University’s Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.

Many of those “homemade” stars ended up in the thick disc in the middle of the galaxy, while most that were captured from Gaia-Enceladus are in the outer halo of the galaxy.

“The merging event with Gaia-Enceladus is thought to be one of the most important in the Milky Way’s history, shaping how we observe it today,” said Josefina Montalban, with the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Birmingham in the U.K., who led the project.

By calculating the age of the stars, the researchers were able to determine, for the first time, that the stars captured from Gaia-Enceladus have similar or slightly younger ages compared to the majority of stars that were born inside the Milky Way.

A violent merger between two galaxies can’t help but shake things up, Vincenzo said. Results showed that the merger changed the orbits of the stars already in the galaxy, making them more eccentric.

Vincenzo compared the stars’ movements to a dance, where the stars from the former Gaia-Enceladus move differently than those born within the Milky Way. The stars even “dress” differently, Vincenzo said, with stars from outside showing different chemical compositions from those born inside the Milky Way.

The researchers used several different approaches and data sources to conduct their study.

The researchers were able to get such precise ages of the stars through the use of asteroseismology, a relatively new field that probes the internal structure of stars.

Asteroseismologists study oscillations in stars, which are sound waves that ripple through their interiors, said Mathieu Vrard, a postdoctoral research associate in Ohio State’s Department of Astronomy.

“That allows us to get very precise ages for the stars, which are important in determining the chronology of when events happened in the early Milky Way,” Vrard said.

The study also used a spectroscopic survey, called APOGEE, which provides the chemical composition of stars — another aid in determining their ages.

“We have shown the great potential of asteroseismology, in combination with spectroscopy, to age-date individual stars,” Montalban said.

This study is just the first step, according to the researchers.

“We now intend to apply this approach to larger samples of stars, and to include even more subtle features of the frequency spectra,” Vincenzo said.

“This will eventually lead to a much sharper view of the Milky Way’s assembly history and evolution, creating a timeline of how our galaxy developed.”

The work is the result of the collaborative Asterochronometry project, funded by the European Research Council.


Story Source:

Materials provided by Ohio State University. Originally written by Jeff Grabmeier.


Journal Reference:

  1. Josefina Montalbán, J. Ted Mackereth, Andrea Miglio, Fiorenzo Vincenzo, Cristina Chiappini, Gael Buldgen, Benoît Mosser, Arlette Noels, Richard Scuflaire, Mathieu Vrard, Emma Willett, Guy R. Davies, Oliver J. Hall, Martin Bo Nielsen, Saniya Khan, Ben M. Rendle, Walter E. van Rossem, Jason W. Ferguson, William J. Chaplin. Chronologically dating the early assembly of the Milky WayNature Astronomy, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41550-021-01347-7



White Dwarfs Going Supernova Detonate Like a Nuclear Bomb, Study Suggests

A new study published in the Physical Review Letters suggests that the remnant cores of dead average-size stars can explode like a nuclear bomb.

Known as white dwarfs, these dense cores are packed with heavy radioactive elements called actinides that can spontaneously undergo nuclear fission – the splitting of atoms. Depending on certain conditions, these cores can eventually undergo uncontrolled fission, culminating in a massive stellar explosion known as a supernova.

“The conditions to build and set off an atomic bomb seemed very difficult. I was surprised that these conditions might be satisfied in a natural way inside a very dense white dwarf,” Charles Horowitz, a nuclear astrophysicist from Indiana University Bloomington and one of the study’s researchers, told Space.

“If true, this provides a very new way to think about thermonuclear supernovae, and perhaps other astrophysical explosions,” he added.

Nuclear reactions can trigger supernova of white dwarfs

White dwarfs are the dim, Earth-size cores of dead stars. They form when average-sized stars have exhausted their fuel and shed their outer layers. The sun will one day become a white dwarf, as will more than 90 percent of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy.

Past studies show that white dwarfs can die in type Ia supernovae, a type of stellar explosion. Much remains unknown about what triggers type Ia supernovae, but prior research suggests that they can happen when a white dwarf absorbs material from another star. These two celestial objects orbit each other in an arrangement called a binary star system.

In their study, Horowitz and co-author Matt Caplan, a theoretical physicist from Illinois State University, proposed that type Ia supernovae might also occur when a white dwarf undergoes the processes behind the explosion of a hydrogen bomb.

As a white dwarf cools, actinides such as uranium crystallize within its core. The atoms of these elements can spontaneously undergo nuclear fission, which releases energy and neutrons. Neutrons can collide with other atoms and break them up, repeating the process.

If the amount of actinides exceeds a critical mass, these elements can set off an explosive runaway nuclear fission chain reaction. This, in turn, can trigger nuclear fusion, where atomic nuclei fuse with each other and generate enormous amounts of energy in the process. (Related: Gold and elements heavier than iron were formed on Earth after neutron stars collided billions of years ago: Study.)

The pair’s calculations and computer simulations showed that a critical mass of uranium could indeed crystallize from the mixture of elements in a white dwarf. If this heavy uranium were to explode due to a nuclear chain reaction, the white dwarf would become so hot and pressurized as to trigger the fusion of lighter elements, resulting in a supernova. A hydrogen bomb also works the same way – a nuclear chain reaction is initiated to set off a nuclear fusion explosion.

Horowitz said that this mechanism could be responsible for around half of all Type Ia supernovae in the cosmos. These stellar explosions should occur within a billion years of a white dwarf’s formation since uranium takes a very long time to decay.

The pair recommended running more computer simulations to definitively answer whether fission chain reactions in white dwarfs could indeed trigger nuclear fusion. Though the study was compelling, Horowitz admitted that there were plenty of physical processes that occur during a supernova, which meant there were many potential uncertainties.

For more fascinating studies about stars and space, visit Cosmic.news.

Sources include:

LiveScience.com

Space.com

By  | Science.News




Fuel For the Future: Chemist Develops Ammonia Fuel Cells that “Bottle” Sunshine and Wind

Ammonia may become the foundation of the future of sustainable energy. But until recently, the production of ammonia has been extremely energy-intensive. At the core of each ammonia, the factory is steel reactors that still use a century-old recipe for making ammonia: the Haber-Bosch process.

The recipe entails generating up to 250 atmospheres of pressure to split the chemical bond that holds together the molecules of nitrogen and then combining the atoms with hydrogen to make ammonia.

In 2018, Douglas MacFarlane, a professor of chemistry at Monash University in Australia, developed fuel cells that can transform renewable electricity into ammonia. Fuel cells normally use the energy stored in chemical bonds to make electricity. MacFarlane’s fuel cells operate in reverse, making carbon-free fuel from electricity.

“This is breathing nitrogen in and breathing ammonia out,” said MacFarlane, showing his fuel cell. It is almost the size of a hockey puck and clad in stainless steel. Two plastic tubes on the cell’s backside feed it nitrogen gas and water. It has a power cord for electricity and a third tube on the front that silently exhales ammonia.

Tapping into the potential of ammonia as a carbon-free fuel

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent, and irritating gas. The human body produces ammonia, which is essential for creating proteins and other complex molecules. In nature, soil also produces ammonia through bacterial processes. The decomposition of organic matter like plants and animals also produces ammonia.

Most of the ammonia produced worldwide is used as fertilizer. Plants need nitrogen to grow and bear fruit and ammonia delivers that nitrogen in a more biologically available form.

Companies around the world produce $60 billion worth of ammonia annually, primarily as fertilizer. However, the current method used to produce ammonia, the Haber-Bosch process, has changed very little since its development in the early 1900s. It consumes vast amounts of fossil fuels and causes air pollution.

MacFarlane’s reverse fuel cells might allow ammonia manufacturers to do away with this energy-intensive and environmentally damaging technique altogether and produce ammonia more efficiently in the process.

But MacFarlane’s fuel cells may do more than just help farmers grow food. By converting renewable electricity from the sun and wind into an energy-rich gas that can be easily cooled and squeezed into liquid fuel, the cells effectively “bottle” sunshine and wind, turning them into commodities that can be shipped worldwide.

The bottled carbon-free fuel can then be converted back into electricity or hydrogen gas to power cars. And the best part about the fuel is that it is environmentally friendly. “Liquid ammonia is liquid energy,” said MacFarlane. “It’s the sustainable technology we need.”

Research also indicates that the energy density by volume of ammonia is nearly double that of liquid hydrogen, its primary competitor as a green alternative fuel. Ammonia is also much easier to ship and distribute. “You can store it, ship it, burn it and convert it back into hydrogen and nitrogen,” said Tim Hughes, an energy storage researcher at Siemen, a manufacturing company based in England. “In many ways, it’s ideal.”

Given the potential of ammonia as a clean, sustainable, and carbon-free fuel, experts are now working toward a vision of an “ammonia economy.” And Australia is positioning itself at the helm of those efforts.

For starters, the ancient, arid landscapes of Australia are fertile ground for new growth. Additionally, Australia receives more sunlight per square meter than just about any other country. Its south and west coasts are also buffeted by powerful winds. Overall, the country boasts a renewable energy potential of 25,000 gigawatts.

And if scientists harness this renewable bounty, ammonia could become the most dominant form of renewable and transportable energy in the future.

Go to Power.news to learn more about how scientists are using ammonia to create fuel.

Sources include:

ScienceMag.org

Lens.Monash.edu

By Divina Ramirez | Science.News