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There’s a Secret Hidden Continent Below New Zealand

CC BY 2.0 NASA/Goddard/NPP

By Melissa Breyer | Treehugger

Scientists have been studying the huge submerged landmass for decades and are now pushing for its recognition as a continent.

Everyone knows that there are seven continents – but it’s becoming increasingly evident that maybe we don’t actually know that much about the planet we call home. New mysteries are regularly revealed; for heaven’s sake, we’ve only explored less than five percent of the ocean. Out of the 10 million species that dwell there, we know only one million of them. This planet holds so many beautiful secrets, many of which are right under our noses.

Which is why it’s both completely surprising and then again not at all to learn that there is an eighth continent, according to scientists who have been studying it for decades. Meet “Zealandia.”

The enormous landmass is almost entirely submerged in the southwest Pacific, though you would know it’s highest mountains that peek out from the water in the shape of New Zealand. The highest point of Zealandia is Aoraki–Mount Cook at 12,218 feet (3,724 meters).

South Islands and New Caledonia also belong to the continent contender. Altogether, the area measures a whopping 1.9 million square miles (5 million square kilometers) – for comparison, that’s about two-thirds of the size of nearby Australia.

Zealandia

© GNS

But if there’s a landmass that is 94 percent underwater, isn’t it just ocean floor? What makes researchers think it deserves continent status?

In a study published in the Geological Society of America’s Journal, the authors explain continent-making criteria, of which Zealandia fulfills the requirements. Here’s a summary of their summary of the four key attributes of continents and assess how Zealandia meets these criteria.

Elevation
Zealandia is everywhere substantially elevated above the surrounding oceanic crust. The main difference with other continents is that it has much wider and deeper continental shelves than is usually the case.

Geology
By itself, the relatively high elevation is not enough to establish that a piece of crust is continental, but looking at the geology of Zealandia puts it into continent turf. To make a long story short, the authors note: “Essential geological ground truth for Zealandia is provided by the many island outcrop, drill core, xenolith, and seabed dredge samples of Paleozoic and Mesozoic greywacke, schist, granite, and other siliceous continental rocks that have been found within its limits.”

Crustal Structure
Zealandia’s crustal structure is atypical of normal oceanic crust. And while most of its crust is thinner than that of most continents, it is nonetheless thicker than even the thickest crust of the ocean basins.

Limits and Area
There is a long discussion about continent-ocean boundaries and well-defined geologic and geographic limits … and from which the authors conclude that Zealandia is large enough and well-defined enough to be termed a continent.

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Quantum search is Nature’s way

Quantum Search

This week brought us extraordinary news confirming that Nature appears to utilize a special kind of quantum search algorithm.  The Grover’s search algorithm, when utilized by quantum computing systems, has the ability to almost immediately find what it is looking for.  It is able to do so because it undergoes coherent evolution, such that it elegantly and efficiently hones in exactly on the answer (or answers) being sought.

Physicist Lov Kumar Grover was employed as a quantum physicist at Bell Labs in New Jersey in 1996, when he noticed an algorithm that could utilize special properties of quantum physics to more quickly find a target solution in the fewest possible search steps.

David Deutsch provides wonderfully informative descriptions of key elements of quantum computation a series of lectures at Clarendon Laboratory at the University of Oxford, including a detailed description of Grover’s Search Algorithm.  David describes how there exists a ‘marking operation’ that marks the target (answer) term in the quantum superposition state by changing its sign (described at 12:31 in the video).  Deutsch describes how the Grover’s algorithm when utilized by quantum systems can search through a million possibilities in only about a thousand iterations, or search through one trillion possibilities in just a million iterations.  And most spectacularly, the Grover’s search only exactly hits the sought-after target state only when N equals four, so that a single Oracle call of the Grover’s search algorithm is enough to do the whole search (21:57).  The Oracle version of the Grover’s algorithm searching task has proven itself to be optimal–to be the fastest algorithmic search possible when compared with all other possible classical and quantum search algorithms.

Quickly finding Holes in the Grid

Stephane Guillet and colleagues at the University of Toulon in France have found evidence for the Grover search as a naturally occurring phenomenon, and provide the first evidence that electrons may naturally behave like a Grover search, seeking out defects in a material.  Grover’s search algorithm can be reformulated as a kind of quantum walk across a given surface, conducting a search across a two-dimensional plane, and doing so much more quickly than a classical search.  Guillet’s team simulated Grover’s searches for electrons that were exploring triangular and square grids.  With square grids, electrons could choose between four different directions, and within triangular grids, electrons select between three different options.  Guillet’s team also included defects in these grids, in the form of holes, and also quantum interference effects, all the while testing to see how quickly an electron could find a hole in the grid.

One giant breakthrough in Guillet’s team’s work is that they might just have found the process used by electrons in real life, moving across crystals in the real world.  If free electrons implement something like the Grover search algorithm, scientists can bypass the need for developing fully error-correcting quantum computers, and follow the shortcut of finding places in Nature where the Grover search naturally occurs.

Searching the Genetic Code

Amazingly, the genetic DNA code utilized by every creature on our family tree of plants and animals is based on four nucleotide bases.  These nucleotides (G, C, A, and T) encode information for constructing proteins from 20 amino acids.  Researcher Apoorva Patel at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore described how Grover’s algorithm could explain the significance of four nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids in the paper, Quantum Algorithms and the Genetic Code.  Patel showed that four is the optimal number for Nature to work with, such that the difference between four alternatives can be determined in a single step, utilizing Grover’s algorithm in a quantum process.  And choosing which amino acid is best from 20 possibilities can be quickly determined in a three-step quantum search.  It turns out that four nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids are the optimal numbers in order to ensure optimal efficiency in assembling DNA and proteins, provided the search operations are quantum–and not classical.

Quantum Processes are Nature’s Way

With an ever-increasing body of evidence, we are starting to see that not only can quantum processes occur in warm, wet, noisy natural settings such as biological systems, they likely play pivotal, dominant roles.  We are at a juncture at the dawning of this new Quantum Age where we are privileged to see how quantum logic and quantum processes provide optimal solutions.  And on some very deep level, we are already intuitively attuned to recognizing and appreciating such things as quantum search.

I invite you to watch the companion video to this blog post at:

 

___________________________

QuantumJumps300x150adCynthia Sue Larson is the best-selling author of six books, including Quantum Jumps. Cynthia has a degree in Physics from UC Berkeley, and discusses consciousness and quantum physics on numerous shows including the History Channel, Gaia TV, Coast to Coast AM, the BBC and One World with Deepak Chopra and on the Living the Quantum Dream show she hosts. You can subscribe to Cynthia’s free monthly ezine at: http://www.RealityShifters.com
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Earth’s First Luxury Space Hotel Could Launch As Soon As 2022

By Amanda Froelich | Truth Theory

Nearly everyone has dreamt about traveling to space and within the next few decades, many will have the chance. But when passengers make it to their destination, where will they stay? If all goes according to plan, at the Aurora Station, Earth’s first luxury space hotel.

By 2021, the startup Orion Span seeks to launch the Aurora Station into orbit. As early as 2022, it could start accepting guests. If you are interested in such an experience, you may want to start saving money. The 12-night stay, which includes food, transportation to and from Earth, and three months of training, cost $9.5 million per person.

Only four guests can check into the Aurora Station at a time. To reserve a spot, an $80,000 deposit is required. Fortunately, it is entirely refundable.

As Space News reports, little else is known about the startup’s plans. The only other tidbit of information the company has shared is that because the hotel is a single module, no additional assembly would be necessary once it reaches orbit.

As neat as it sounds, the Aurora Station is still a concept. If it becomes a reality, however, Orion Span will likely partner with private companies for transportation, such as Virgin Galactic. “That will be through partnerships with SpaceX, Blue Origin or a space agency,” said Orion Span’s CEO, Frank Bunger. As of yet, no partnerships have been announced.

Other details have yet to be worked out, such as where the Aurora Station will be built. According to Bunger, it will be assembled in a facility in Houston, Texas. However, that facility does not yet exist. “We’ll probably be getting that in the next six to nine months,” said Bunger.

The company currently has six employees. Only a handful have backgrounds in space. Before Bunger got in the business of luxury space accommodation, he worked as a vice president at an information technology company.

Source: Space News, Engadget

Image Credit: Orion Span

About the Author

 Amanda Froelich

I’m an RHN, plant-based chef, a freelance writer with 6+ years of experience, Reiki master therapist, world traveler and enthusiast of everything to do with animal rights, sustainability, cannabis, and conscious living. I share healthy recipes at Bloom for Life and cannabis-infused treats at My Stoned Kitchen. Read More stories by Amanda Froelich

Read more great articles at Truth Theory.




Explore Some Mind-Blowing Benefits of Digital Technology

By Maria Power

Digital technology has been included in all aspects of life whether it is studies, teaching, entertainment household things, and many others. People have many electronic devices, which they use to connect with their near and dear ones. The technology led to reducing the size of the devices and they have become easily portable. Data storage has become easy and various things like CDs, DVDs, external hard drive, etc. can be used to store data. Here are some of the benefits of digital technology.

1. Social connectivity

There are many websites that provide the facility of socially connecting with friends and family. People even use the technology to connect with their employees to give them instructions or deal with the problems they are facing in a particular project. The communication can be done in the form of text, video, audio, apps, and many other things. The digital world has taken out the people from isolation and they can always be connected to their friends and family and share their views.

2. Communication

The speed of the internet has increased and development is still going on to increase the speed. The connectivity has started with a dial-up connection and now faster broadband have enabled the data transfer faster than the dial-up ones. The broadband has enabled users to upload and download movies and songs and other types of content. Along with this, large data files can be easily sent in bulk.

3. Changes in the nature of work

Changes in the nature of work and employment also have taken place as employers can connect with the employees from a remote place. This has also led to many opportunities; which people can avail from home and payment is made online. Employer of one country can employ many people from other countries and payment can be done inline. Employees need not leave their countries and hometowns and enjoy working. Employers also get rid of many types of costs like infrastructure, administration, and many others.

4. Learning opportunities

Internet access has opened new ways of learning and people can find many articles related to a topic. They can go through them and complete their assignments and projects. Teachers also have opportunities for sending learning material online. This has led to the emergence of online education where courses, exams, and degrees are provided online.

5. Automation

The technology has led to the development of automatic machines, which are used for domestic as well as commercial purposes. There are some machines, which can work automatically without any human interference. This has freed many workers and they do not need to boring tasks daily. The machines have also become safer as if there are any issues, they have the system to raise alarms.

6. Storage of information

The technology has increased the opportunities for storing data in various formats and in various devices. Data can be stored in the hard disk of laptops, external hard drive, CD, DVD, USB drive, and many others. Now cloud storage technology s becoming popular and many companies provide limited space to store data on the cloud. Users also have the opportunity to buy space for storage in the cloud.

7. Editing

This is another facility provided by digital technology. People can edit text, videos, audios, and other things Word processing has enabled users to edit and format the data ad present them beautifully. Presentation software helps in providing a presentation. Previously, large and expensive equipment was used to edit the videos but they can now be edited sitting at home with few clicks.

8. Accurate duplication

The digital technology has made it possible to duplicate the data accurately. In the exact from at which is similar to the original one. Users can write a single email or message and transfer it to multiple users by sending an email. Everything can be sent in a single mail so there is no need to write separate emails. The technology is also being used for 3D printing.

Wrapping Up

These are some of the benefits, which people can avail through digital technology. Besides these many other things can be done like finding an unknown location, transportation, news, entertainment, and many other things. The technology is still under development and people may find such machines, which can communicate with humans and tell them that the house is not secure and many other things.




Can You Change Someone’s Opinion? Here’s What Science Says

Video Source: AsapSCIENCE

Do you spend a lot of time trying to convince your friends or family (or even strangers) about what is right or what is better for them? You may be wasting your time. In another clever video, the guys of ASAP Science explore the question of whether we can even change another’s opinion. And if we can, what are some of the most effective ways to approach persuasion (hint: find common ground).

Watch this and become more realistic about how people form their opinions and whether you can change them.




Scientists Make Breakthrough in the Fight Against Superbugs

superbug-large-bacteria-compressed

By Julie Fidler | Natural Society

A 25-year-old Malaysian Ph.D. student at the University of Melbourne thinks she has figured out how to kill bacteria that have stopped responding to antibiotics.

Shu Lam’s breakthrough couldn’t have come soon enough. The MCR-1 gene, which makes bacteria resistant to all antibiotics, is marching across the globe. It has been found in 4 people in the United States this year, including a toddler.

Last week, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly passed a declaration signed by multiple world leaders aimed at tackling the growing superbug crisis. These countries agreed to take immediate action, including working to limit the use of antibiotics in humans, unless absolutely necessary, and reducing the number of antibiotics that are given to farm animals to promote growth.

Related Article: Honey: The Solution for Antibiotic Resistant “Super Bugs”?

Failure to take strong, immediate action could result in 10 million deaths due to superbugs by the year 2050.

The Breakthrough

Lam and her colleagues at the Melbourne University School of Engineering designed a star-shaped polymerized peptide, which is a large repeated chain of proteins. The peptide essentially tears antibiotic-resistant bacteria apart.

Said, Lam:

“We’ve discovered that [the polymers] actually target the bacteria and kill it in multiple ways. One method is by physically disrupting or breaking apart the cell wall of the bacteria. This creates a lot of stress on the bacteria and causes it to start killing itself.” [1]

Lam and her team have dubbed the protein chains “SNAPPs” – structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers. [2]

The protein chains have been designed in star shapes with 16 or 32 arms that are approximately 10 nanometers in diameter, which are significantly larger than other antimicrobial peptides. The large size of the peptides doesn’t damage the healthy cells around the bacteria.

Lam’s supervisor, Professor Greg Qiao explained:

“With this polymerized peptide we are talking the difference in scale between a mouse and an elephant. The large peptide molecules can’t enter the [healthy] cells.”

Related Article: Superbug Resistant to ALL Antibiotics Found in China

The researchers tested 6 different superbugs in vitro and found that the star-shaped peptide polymer killed the bacteria, but did not damage the red blood cells in the in vitro environment. [1]

Additionally, the team tested the polymer’s ability to fight a superbug inside of mice. They found that it killed the bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii.

Scientists and world leaders – including the UN General Assembly – have said that pharmaceutical companies should be offered financial incentives to create new antibiotics. However, bacteria could eventually become resistant to these new drugs.

It doesn’t take very long for bacteria to develop antimicrobial resistance at the rate we currently use them. Penicillin was only discovered in 1928.

Lam’s peptide polymer is novel in that, at least according to lab studies, A. baumannii does not become resistant to it.

Lam explained:

“We found the polymers to be really good at wiping out bacterial infections. They are actually effective in treating mice infected by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. At the same time, they are quite non-toxic to the healthy cells in the body.”

The discovery offers hope and opens up a whole new avenue for fighting antimicrobial resistance, but it will take quite some time before this translates into real-world use. Researchers must examine how other types of bacteria respond to the molecules. Lam said:

“This is still at quite a primary or basic research level. What we need to do next is to look in detail at how these peptide polymers actually work.” [3]

Qiao added:

“There’s a lot of work before we go to commercialization.”

Sources:

[1] The Telegraph

[2] Sydney Morning Herald

[3] Australian Broadcasting Corporation

Honey Colony

About Julie Fidler:
Author Image

Julie Fidler is a freelance writer, legal blogger, and the author of Adventures in Holy Matrimony: For Better or the Absolute Worst. She lives in Pennsylvania with her husband and two ridiculously spoiled cats. She occasionally pontificates on her blog.

Read more great articles at Natural Society.




New Data Shows the Earth’s Magnetic Field Is Weakening

Earth's magnetic field-compressed

By Brett Tingley | Mysterious Universe

New data released by the European Space Agency reveals that Earth’s magnetic poles are weakening much faster than was previously thought. The data was collected by the ESA’s Swarm satellites, a set of three orbital satellites designed to track the strength, direction, and variations of the Earth’s geomagnetic field.

This recent set of measurements reveals that our geomagnetic field is weakening by around 5% a year, which is nearly ten times faster than previous estimates. According to the press release by the ESA, the data shows that the field is weakening faster in some places than others:

It shows clearly that the field has weakened by about 3.5% at high latitudes over North America, while it has strengthened about 2% over Asia. The region where the field is at its weakest – the South Atlantic Anomaly – has moved steadily westward and weakened further by about 2%.

This new data might foreshadow a coming reversal of Earth’s magnetic poles, an event thought to occur around every 100,00 years, with the last reversal happening during the human Stone Age. While some Doomsday sayers believe that this magnetic reversal could mark the end of life on Earth, the consensus among geoscientists is that the worst effect could be the re-labeling all of Earth’s compasses.

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Scientists Have Figured Out How To Delete And Edit Memories, But Are We Ready?

digital-brain_wide-compressed

By Brianna Acuesta | Activist Post

Memory is the most important part of a person’s identity, so it’s baffling that today there is still so little we understand about how human memory works. In PBS’ “Memory Hackers,” scientists from around the world let us in on their research into how to manipulate our memories in order to forget or even create new ones. The hour-long documentary interviews cognitive scientists and neurobiologists as well as their subjects to gain more insight into how these fascinating processes work and what the amazing results are.

The documentary’s producers explain the premise and motivation behind making this film by saying that,

For much of human history, memory has been seen as a tape recorder that faithfully registers information and replays it intact, but now, researchers are discovering that memory is far more malleable, always being written and rewritten, not just by us but by others. We are discovering the precise mechanisms that can explain and even control our memories.

If you’re thinking about how these studies might relate to the movie Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, you’re not far off. Among the subjects, the film studies, the research of Karim Nader is explored. Nader discovered that the human memory may not be permanent but may, instead, be vulnerable to alteration each time a memory is recalled. This discovery led to hundreds of other studies around the world that were rooted in this theory and is rumored to be an inspiration for the well-known independent movie.

One of the patients in the film is Jake Hausler, a 12-year-old boy with a fascinating and rare ability to remember everything he has ever experienced since he was 8. Jake is the youngest person to ever be diagnosed with Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory, a mental ability that allows him to recall everything he’s ever done but makes it difficult to distinguish between important and trivial memories and events. Researchers from the Washington University School of Medicine are mapping Jake’s brain to understand what makes his memory so strong and to see if this leads to new insights about how memory works.

Professor Julia Shaw, who is a researcher that the film follows as well, is an expert on false memory and the implantation of memories. Her research, which has a 70% success rate for convincing people that they committed a crime that they actually were not involved in, reveals the flaws in the criminal justice system and prisoners who were convicted purely based on eyewitness testimony that was likely faulty.

While Shaw is researching the implantation of memories, another scientist, André Fenton, is studying the science of forgetting memories. He believes that “Forgetting is probably one of the most important things that brains will do,” and that it’s possible that an injection could erase a painful memory. His hopes are that his research will one day help those suffering from dementia and Alzheimer’s by having a better understanding of how our brain works to remove memories.

Merel Kindt has also discovered that medication can help to remove negative associations of some memories. In her research, she was able to cure patients who suffered from severe cases of arachnophobia, which is the fear of spiders. This could lead to breakthroughs in reducing anxieties and fears in those who find daily functions intimidating, as well as help with a range of other anxiety-related issues like eating disorders.

Though this research may be fascinating and innovative, it raises the question of whether or not humans are ready for these kinds of breakthroughs. Just as the abuse of implanting memories can be dangerous for important aspects of society like being an eyewitness to a crime, forgetting memories could be hazardous for people’s personal lives and individual development. When the research turns into concrete medication or treatments available to the public, we will have to ask ourselves if we are prepared for such unknown consequences.

Watch the trailer for “Memory Hackers” below and tell us what you think in the comments!

This article (Scientists Have Figured Out How To Delete And Edit Memories, But Are We Ready?) is free and open source. You have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to the author and TrueActivist.com

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Blind Inventor Develops ‘Smart Cane’ That Uses Google Maps And Sensors To Identify Surroundings

 

Mandy Froelich | Truth Theory

Thanks to the ingenuity of a blind inventor, people who lack sight can more easily navigate the world. The “smart cane,” or WeWalk cane, uses ultrasonic sensors to warn the user of nearby objects and obstacles through vibrations in the handle.

As CNN reports, the purpose of the device is to protect people from low-hanging objects and obstacles above chest level. Not only can the can be paired with a smartphone’s Bluetooth system for easy control but is is also integrated with Voice Assistant and Google Maps Software. Furthermore, the WeWalk cane has built-in speakers the user of nearby stores and infrastructural details that may not easily be detected.

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The Universe Is Expanding Faster Than Expected

Source: Science Daily

Astronomers have used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to make the most precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe since it was first calculated nearly a century ago. Intriguingly, the results are forcing astronomers to consider that they may be seeing evidence of something unexpected at work in the universe.

That’s because the latest Hubble finding confirms a nagging discrepancy showing the universe to be expanding faster now than was expected from its trajectory seen shortly after the big bang. Researchers suggest that there may be new physics to explain the inconsistency.

“The community is really grappling with understanding the meaning of this discrepancy,” said lead researcher and Nobel Laureate Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and Johns Hopkins University, both in Baltimore, Maryland.

Riess’s team, which includes Stefano Casertano, also of STScI and Johns Hopkins, has been using Hubble over the past six years to refine the measurements of the distances to galaxies, using their stars as milepost markers. Those measurements are used to calculate how fast the universe expands with time, a value known as the Hubble constant. The team’s new study extends the number of stars analyzed to distances up to 10 times farther into space than previous Hubble results.

But Riess’s value reinforces the disparity with the expected value derived from observations of the early universe’s expansion, 378,000 years after the big bang — the violent event that created the universe roughly 13.8 billion years ago. Those measurements were made by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which maps the cosmic microwave background, a relic of the big bang. The difference between the two values is about 9 percent. The new Hubble measurements help reduce the chance that the discrepancy in the values is a coincidence to 1 in 5,000.

Planck’s result predicted that the Hubble constant value should now be 67 kilometers per second per megaparsec (3.3 million light-years), and could be no higher than 69 kilometers per second per megaparsec. This means that for every 3.3 million light-years farther away a galaxy is from us, it is moving 67 kilometers per second faster. But Riess’s team measured a value of 73 kilometers per second per megaparsec, indicating galaxies are moving at a faster rate than implied by observations of the early universe.

The Hubble data are so precise that astronomers cannot dismiss the gap between the two results as errors in any single measurement or method. “Both results have been tested multiple ways, so barring a series of unrelated mistakes,” Riess explained, “it is increasingly likely that this is not a bug but a feature of the universe.”

Explaining a Vexing Discrepancy

Riess outlined a few possible explanations for the mismatch, all related to the 95 percent of the universe that is shrouded in darkness. One possibility is that dark energy, already known to be accelerating the cosmos, maybe shoving galaxies away from each other with even greater — or growing — strength. This means that the acceleration itself might not have a constant value in the universe but changes over time in the universe. Riess shared a Nobel Prize for the 1998 discovery of the accelerating universe.

Another idea is that the universe contains a new subatomic particle that travels close to the speed of light. Such speedy particles are collectively called “dark radiation” and include previously known particles like neutrinos, which are created in nuclear reactions and radioactive decays. Unlike a normal neutrino, which interacts by a subatomic force, this new particle would be affected only by gravity and is dubbed a “sterile neutrino.”

Yet another attractive possibility is that dark matter (an invisible form of matter not made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons) interacts more strongly with normal matter or radiation than previously assumed.

Any of these scenarios would change the contents of the early universe, leading to inconsistencies in theoretical models. These inconsistencies would result in an incorrect value for the Hubble constant, inferred from observations of the young cosmos. This value would then be at odds with the number derived from the Hubble observations.

Riess and his colleagues don’t have any answers yet to this vexing problem, but his team will continue to work on fine-tuning the universe’s expansion rate. So far, Riess’s team, called the Supernova H0 for the Equation of State (SH0ES), has decreased the uncertainty to 2.3 percent. Before Hubble was launched in 1990, estimates of the Hubble constant varied by a factor of two. One of Hubble’s key goals was to help astronomers reduce the value of this uncertainty to within an error of only 10 percent. Since 2005, the group has been on a quest to refine the accuracy of the Hubble constant to a precision that allows for a better understanding of the universe’s behavior.

Building a Strong Distance Ladder

The team has been successful in refining the Hubble constant value by streamlining and strengthening the construction of the cosmic distance ladder, which the astronomers use to measure accurate distances to galaxies near to and far from Earth. The researchers have compared those distances with the expansion of space as measured by the stretching of light from receding galaxies. They then have used the apparent outward velocity of galaxies at each distance to calculate the Hubble constant.

But the Hubble constant’s value is only as precise as the accuracy of the measurements. Astronomers cannot use a tape measure to gauge the distances between galaxies. Instead, they have selected special classes of stars and supernovae as cosmic yardsticks or milepost markers to precisely measure galactic distances.

Among the most reliable for shorter distances are Cepheid variables, pulsating stars that brighten and dim at rates that correspond to their intrinsic brightness. Their distances, therefore, can be inferred by comparing their intrinsic brightness with their apparent brightness as seen from Earth.

Astronomer Henrietta Leavitt was the first to recognize the utility of Cepheid variables to gauge distances in 1913. But the first step is to measure the distances to Cepheids independent of their brightness, using a basic tool of geometry called parallax. Parallax is the apparent shift of an object’s position due to a change in an observer’s point of view. This technique was invented by the ancient Greeks who used it to measure the distance from Earth to the Moon.

The latest Hubble result is based on measurements of the parallax of eight newly analyzed Cepheids in our Milky Way galaxy. These stars are about 10 times farther away than any studied previously, residing between 6,000 light-years and 12,000 light-years from Earth, making them more challenging to measure. They pulsate at longer intervals, just like the Cepheids observed by Hubble in distant galaxies containing another reliable yardstick, exploding stars called Type Ia supernovae. This type of supernova flares with uniform brightness and is brilliant enough to be seen from relatively farther away. Previous Hubble observations studied 10 faster-blinking Cepheids located 300 light-years to 1,600 light-years from Earth.

Scanning the Stars

To measure parallax with Hubble, the team had to gauge the apparent tiny wobble of the Cepheids due to Earth’s motion around the Sun. These wobbles are the size of just 1/100 of a single-pixel on the telescope’s camera, which is roughly the apparent size of a grain of sand seen 100 miles away.

Therefore, to ensure the accuracy of the measurements, the astronomers developed a clever method that was not envisioned when Hubble was launched. The researchers invented a scanning technique in which the telescope measured a star’s position a thousand times a minute every six months for four years.

The team calibrated the true brightness of the eight slowly pulsating stars and cross-correlated them with their more distant blinking cousins to tighten the inaccuracies in their distance ladder. The researchers then compared the brightness of the Cepheids and supernovae in those galaxies with better confidence, so they could more accurately measure the stars’ true brightness, and therefore calculate distances to hundreds of supernovae in far-flung galaxies with more precision.

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Earth’s Magnetic Field Is NOT About To Reverse, Study Finds

Intensity at Earth’s surface (left) and radial field (Br) at the CMB (right). Top: mid-point of the Laschamp excursion; bottom: mid-point of the Mono Lake excursion. The field is truncated at spherical harmonic degree five. Credit: University of Liverpool

Source: Phys.org

A study of the most recent near-reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field by an international team of researchers, including the University of Liverpool, has found it is unlikely that such an event will take place anytime soon.

There has been speculation that the Earth’s  may be about to reverse, with substantial implications, due to a weakening of the  over at least the last two hundred years, combined with the expansion of an identified weak area in the Earth’s magnetic field called the South Atlantic Anomaly, which stretches from Chile to Zimbabwe.

In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team of international researchers model observations of the geomagnetic field of the two most recent geomagnetic excursion events, the Laschamp, approximately 41,000 years ago, and Mono Lake, around 34,000 years ago, where the field came close to reversing but recovered its original structure.

The model reveals a field structures comparable to the current geomagnetic field at both approximately 49,000 and 46,000 years ago, with an intensity structure similar to, but much stronger than, today’s South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA); their timing and severity is confirmed by records of cosmogenic nuclides. However, neither of these SAA-like fields developed into an excursion or reversal.

Richard Holme, Professor of Geomagnetism at the University of Liverpool, said: “There has been speculation that we are about to experience a magnetic polar reversal or excursion. However, by studying the two most recent excursion events, we show that neither bear resemblance to current changes in the geomagnetic field and therefore it is probably unlikely that such an event is about to happen.

“Our research suggests instead that the current weakened field will recover without such an extreme event, and therefore is unlikely to reverse.”

The South Atlantic Anomaly is probably not an evidence of a reversing Earth's magnetic field

Increased occurrence of radiation-induced technical satellite failures of the Swarm satellites (white spots) in the region of the geomagnetic South Atlantic Anomaly (blue color = reduced field intensity) between April 2014 and June 2017. Credit: I. Michaelis, GFZ

The strength and structure of the Earth’s magnetic field have varied at different times throughout geological history. At certain periods, the geomagnetic field has weakened to such an extent that it was able to swap the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south, whilst geographic north and geographic south remain the same.

Called a geomagnetic reversal, the last time this happened was 780,000 years ago. However, geomagnetic excursions, where the field comes close to reversing but recovers its original , have occurred more recently.

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Journey to Consciousness With the Horse

Every Saturday from 4-6pm EST I host the Cosmic Creating Show on Cosmic Reality Radio when I interview interesting and inspiring guests to explore topics such as spirituality, conscious evolution, metaphysics, ascension, personal empowerment, universal laws, mindfulness, manifestation, and hidden truths.

On Saturday 31st August, I decided to do something different.

My clients and listeners to my previous shows know that I often include snippets of information about my incredible experiences with my Andalusian horse and what he taught me about the nature of fear (and how to overcome it), about energy and energetic communication, about how childhood experiences can destroy your self-confidence (and how to rebuild it), and how manifestation works.

In this show I tell the story about my journey to consciousness with the horse and what I learned from the experience that can help you step into your power as a cosmic creator.

Here is the recording of the show and I’d love to know what you think in the comments.

You can listen to recordings of all my shows on YouTube or Spreaker.

Jan Shaw The Success AlchemistJan Shaw – The Success Alchemist, is a Spiritual Empowerment and Intuitive Success Coach, Success Strategist and Mindfulness and Manifestation Mentor and can be found at www.thesuccessalchemist.net. She delivers intuitive guidance, spiritual and metaphysical teaching, plus life and business strategies, to support you in fulfilling your Soul Mission and Life Purpose. Get your FREE copy of her Dream Achievers Success Kit or apply for a complimentary Success Strategy SessionHer book Empowered Manifestation is available on Amazon. Visit her YouTube Channel for more tips, tools, and training. You can also visit her Facebook Page and join her Facebook Group, Breakthrough to Brilliance. Jan also hosts the Cosmic Creating Show every Saturday on Cosmic Reality Radio.




Modern-Day Alchemy: Researchers Turn Hydrogen into Metal in a Stunning Discovery that Could Revolutionize Technology and Spaceflight

By Amando Flavio | We Are Anonymous

At the beginning of the last two centuries, if somebody had predicted it possible to turn hydrogen into a metal, the scientific community would most likely have responded that it would involve pseudo-scientific methods.

Alchemy, which is the medieval forerunner of chemistry, concerned with the transmutation of matter, in particular, with attempts to convert base metals into gold or find a universal elixir, would have fit into the process of turning hydrogen into a metal. Although modern-day chemistry developed from alchemy, it is considered a pseudo-science because of its seemingly magical process of transformation.

Robert Boyle produced hydrogen gas in 1671 while he was experimenting with iron and acids, but it wasn’t until 1766 that Henry Cavendish recognized it as a distinct element, according to Jefferson Lab. The element was named hydrogen by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier.

Hydrogen is a chemical element, with the chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Energy experts and chemical engineers admit that hydrogen is a highly efficient and low polluting fuel. Currently, hydrogen is mainly used as a fuel in the NASA space program. Liquid hydrogen is used to propel space shuttles and other rockets, while hydrogen fuel cells power the electrical systems of the shuttle. The hydrogen fuel cell is also used to produce pure water for the shuttle crew.

Hydrogen Metal

Many observers have criticized researchers at NASA, accusing them of deliberately keeping hydrogen fuel from the public because of its threat to the oil industry. It is believed if hydrogen fuel becomes a conventional fuel; the oil industry will collapse, leading to humanity’s total energy freedom from fossil fuels.

Hydrogen Metal

However, it appears as though we are yet to fully explore the uses of hydrogen. More details about the element are emerging, however, with a particular discovery that is mind-blowing.

Researchers from Harvard University have announced they have successfully created a metal from hydrogen. Professor Isaac Silvera and Dr. Ranga Dias made the breakthrough discovery. Their study has been accepted into the journal Science.

According to experts, what the researchers have succeeded in creating is probably the rarest, and possibly the most valuable material on the planet so far.

From a theoretical point of view, metallic hydrogen could completely revolutionize technology, enabling the creation of super-fast computers, high-speed levitating trains, and ultra-efficient vehicles, as well as dramatically improving almost anything involving electricity. The metal could also allow humans to explore outer space with the highest efficiency and easiest approach.

Hydrogen Metal

The researchers said they placed a thin metal gasket between two flat-tipped diamonds. The gasket holds the hydrogen in place between the tips as the diamonds are cranked together. At the moment, the tiny piece of metal can only be seen through two diamonds that were used to crush liquid hydrogen at a temperature far below freezing. The amount of pressure needed was immense – more than is found at the center of the Earth. The sample of the metal has remained trapped in this astonishing grip, but the researchers plan to carefully ease the pressure.

However, some researchers are skeptical about the work. According to Science Magazine, the dispute arises because high-pressure hydrogen experiments are hard to pull off and even harder to interpret. The skeptics, therefore, suspect the researchers might have employed some form of alchemy in their work. In fact, some critics of the discovery have even theorized that metallic hydrogen will be unstable on its surface and so would gradually decay.

Hydrogen Metal

But the researchers refuted the alchemy suspicion and the unsuccessfulness of the metal. According to one theory, metallic hydrogen will be stable at room temperature – a prediction that Professor Silvera said was “very important.”

“That means if you take the pressure off, it will stay metallic, similar to the way diamonds form from graphite under intense heat and pressure but remains a diamond when that pressure and heat is removed,” he said.

The researchers said all their attention is now concentrated on making the metal they have created, to possess the properties of a theoretical hydrogen metal. Hydrogen metal is theorized to be a super-conductor, and could dramatically improve anything that uses electricity.

The researchers wrote: “As much as 15 percent of energy is lost to dissipation during transmission, so if you could make wires from this material and use them in the electrical grid, it could change that story.”

Apart from electricity, metallic hydrogen could also transform humanity’s efforts to explore the solar system by providing a form of rocket fuel nearly four times more powerful than the best available today.

“It takes a tremendous amount of energy to make metallic hydrogen. And if you convert it back to molecular hydrogen, all that energy is released, so it would make it the most powerful rocket propellant known to man and could revolutionize rocketry. That would easily allow you to explore the outer planets.  We would be able to put rockets into orbit with only one stage, versus two, and could send up larger payloads, so it could be very important,” Professor Silvera said.

Hydrogen Metal

Currently, the researchers are experimenting to see if their discovery is stable at normal pressures and temperatures. If this experiment proves successful, the world will be home and dry on this one. It would usher humanity into the next step of empirical and observable knowledge in the scientific community.

But we should exercise caution in celebrating what the researchers have achieved. What we should be thinking now is their safety. Groundbreaking discoveries like these pose threats to conventional corporations and even some governments. Don’t forget that all the people who invented water-powered cars either died under strange circumstances or were forced to end their inventions. Therefore, let’s be vigilant. Always pray for researchers and scientists whose main goal is to make our planet a better place!


This article (Modern-Day Alchemy: Researchers Turn Hydrogen into Metal in a Stunning Discovery that Could Revolutionize Technology and Spaceflight) is free and open-source. You have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to the author and AnonHQ.com.

Read more great articles at We Are Anonymous.




Bruce Lipton: The ‘Secret of Life’ is Not Encoded in the Genes

By Dr. Bruce Lipton Ph.D. | Uplift

Becoming the Masters of Our Genes

It was once thought that genes could turn themselves on and off, and in the process, they could control the character of our lives. This belief led to the conclusion that our fate was controlled by the genome we acquired from our mother and father at the moment of conception. Unfortunately, if we do not like the traits we inherited, we cannot change our genes. When we combine these facts with the notion that genes control their own activity, we are left with the inescapable conclusion that we are ‘victims’ of our heredity and should anticipate expressing the diseases and negative traits passed down through our family lineage.

In contrast, my stem cell experiments carried out in the late 60s revealed that genes are not self-actualizing, simply, they are unable to control their own activity. These studies illuminated the new science of epigenetics, which revealed that our genetic activity is ultimately controlled by both a) environmental signals and b) our perception of the environment’s signals. Since we can consciously select our environments and we have control over our perceptions, in truth, we are actually ‘masters’ of our genetic activity.

Current research emphasizes that less than 10%, and perhaps closer to only 1%, of all diseases, are actually due to genes. In fact, there are only six major disorders that are controlled by a single gene, which include cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, Huntington’s disease, Tay-Sachs disease, hereditary hemochromatosis, and Marfan syndrome. In light of this fact, the most profoundly important question to ask is, “Where does 90%, or more, of disease come from?” Answer: “Our own minds.”

If an individual’s mind holds a ‘belief’ that they anticipate expressing a specific disease, it can actually precipitate that illness, and even death itself. Does that imply we are consciously creating illness? Absolutely not! Disease-inducing negative thoughts, recognized as the nocebo effect, operate unconsciously and are almost always related to self-critical and disempowering beliefs acquired from parents, family, and even doctors, before the age of seven. Such beliefs downloaded into the subconscious mind control 95% or more of our cognitive activity and our resulting life experiences.

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INFJs: Picking Up on Personality Patterns

Image result for infj quoteIf you haven’t heard of the Meyers-Briggs personality test, I highly recommend that you Google it with the immediate quickness! This simple yet life-changing assessment can absolutely change your life in some seriously simple yet incredibly mind-opening ways.

I took it years ago and found out I am a classic INFJ personality and taking it again a week ago thankfully has shown the same results LOL. Not that I had expected a change or anything, but I gotta be honest with the recent waves of energy lately, it’s enough to make anyone think they are losing their marbles.

INFJ’s are considered to the rarest of the personality types and while that does not surprise one bit as I have always felt like a Martian here, what does surprise me about it is that most of my other Empathic friends are also INFJs. So, is it perhaps that we are not rare anymore? Or is it that we are energetically in tune with one another and just sort of gravitate? Well, I honestly think it’s a huge heap of both and then some.

We tend to be considered the advocates for the underdogs and I couldn’t agree more. And with this, I began to see a pattern in the types of people not only that I was drawn to, but who were also drawn to me. And not just that, but those whom I felt good around and perhaps not so good. Being an Empath, back then I pretty much had no clue the difference between my own energy and that of the other people around me, but with this most recent test I took, I had some sort of intellectually-stimulated chakra burst of realization…that, not all “bad” people are to be avoided and not all “good” people have the best advice to offer or the best intentions in mind.

Why may you ask? Because truly knowing someone seriously has shit to do with what they look like, or really even so much what they say to or do for you, so much to do with FEELING. How do you FEEL around them? If you were in neutral energy just reading a nice book and someone enters the room and you instantly feel nauseous and really have no logical reason to, then there’s an excellent chance you are picking up on their vibes or energy. The literal frequency that this person is putting out is pretty damn shady and you are feeling it. Image result for infj quote

You can pick up on these patterns on energy shifts the more and more you pay attention to them, and it doesn’t always pertain to bad vibes of course. And this is so helpful when first getting to know people because it gives you a leg up and a read on their energy. At least their initial energy. Kind of like setting a bar so you have a marker to go off of.

While I wasn’t consciously doing this with every person I’ve dated, of course, I applied my recent epiphany to my current relationship and it’s like floodgates of understanding opened up for me. (I had to, of course, ask him to take the Meyers-Briggs test first, too to find out he’s an ENTP) and having this knowledge has allowed me to look at what has worked and has not worked in our relationship, what is still causing tension and what areas we would like to grow in, but in a much more objective manner.

I was able to pick up patterns in my own behaviors that would trigger things in him, that would trigger things in me, that would trigger things in him. And while I believe everything happens for a reason, I also believe we have a huge choice in how everything goes down. 🙂 And my husband and I are super into figuring out the best way to communicate that keeps us connected and understanding one another so our needs are mutually met.

And with insight into these patterns, we both have been lead not only back to ourselves (okay I’m doing a bit more of the leading LOL), but also back to each other. I have learned new ways to see flaws as “aha’s!” and am learning ways to explain to others how to bring their own “aha’s” to the surface, through their flaws, without being, well…bitchy or preachy about it.

Apparently, I tend to come off cold sometimes and this is something I’m learning a lot of INFJs tend to be like, whether they know it or not. It’s not so much an ego thing as it is an “I know I know this and want to help so bad so I want you to know it too, but don’t know how else to get it out without sounding like a complete and utter smartass.” 🙂

Truth is, we care…A LOT. And sometimes the feelings overtake the thoughts. But in the end, it is the perfect dance of expression when you have a peaceful space where you can learn not only to understand how to use your voice but also how to say exactly what you would like to say, exactly how you mean to say it.

 

Tamara Rant is a Co-Editor/Writer for CLN as well as a Licensed Reiki Master, heart-centered Graphic Designer and a progressive voice in social media activism & awareness. She is an avid lover of all things Quantum Physics and Spirituality. Connect with Tamara by visiting Prana Paws/Healing Hearts Reiki or go to RantDesignMedia.com

Tamara posts new original articles to CLN every Saturday.

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This article was originally created and published by Conscious Life News and is published here under a Creative Commons license with attribution to Tamara Rant and ConsciousLifeNews.com. It may be re-posted freely with proper attribution, author bio, and this Copyright/Creative Commons statement.