Smoking Can Erase Y Chromosome From Cells

Written by on December 7, 2014 in Health with 0 Comments

Stephen Luntz | IFLScience

Smoking ManPublic health authorities have been handed their next anti-smoking campaign on a plate, at least when targeting men, with the discovery that smoking wipes out the chromosomes that determine genetic masculinity.

Earlier this year a team led by Lars Fosberg and Jan P Dumanski of Uppsala University tackled the question of why men develop more cancers that are not related to reproductive organs, and more likely to die of them when they do.

The authors note that “Age-related loss of chromosome Y is frequent in normal hematopoietic cells,” but that the consequences of this remain poorly understood.

Fosberg and Dumanski found that the loss of Y chromosomes from blood cells occurred in 8.2% of elderly men in a sample of 1153 and that those affected had life expectancies 5.5% shorter and three and half times the rate of cancer, after excluding haematological cancers.

As the authors point out, “These … could explain why males are more frequently affected by cancer and suggest that chromosome Y is important in processes beyond sex determination.”

This naturally led to the question of what causes the body to lose Y chromosomes, and the same team have now followed up with a paper in Science demonstrating that tobacco smoking is one of the main answers.

While they tested for exercise, diabetes, Body Mass Index,  education and alcohol intake, only smoking (and in one case age) significantly increased Y chromosome loss in three separate cohorts aged 48-93. The authors note this was “by far the most common post-zygotic mutation found,” occurring in 12-16% of the samples aged 70 and over. Loss was 2.4-4.3 times as likely for smokers and non smokers.

The effect increases the more one smokes. The one piece of good news is that the effects greatly reduce, or even stop, when smoking ceases, suggesting “a dynamic and reversible process”. This is in keeping with studies that find, “For smokers who quit at 25 to 34 years of age, survival was nearly identical with those who had never smoked.”

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