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Watch The Awesome Chemistry of Fireworks (Video)

By  Gabriella Munoz | Science Alert

Gunpowder is the key ingredient, but as adjunct professor of chemistry John Conkling from Washington College in the US explains in this video, without chemistry, you wouldn’t have burning mixtures and without these you simply can’t have fireworks.

Titanium gives a sparkling effect; strontium salts and lithium carbonate makes red; barium compounds are used to make green; sodium nitrate is needed to add yellow hues; magnesium or aluminium produce white light; blue is made out of copper compounds; and purple is a mix or strontium and copper.

Watch the video above to learn more about the chemistry of fireworks.

[Read more here]

 

Robert O'Leary 150x150Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products & modalities since the early 1970’s & he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist & father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive & safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield (MA), New England & “virtually” the world, with his website, www.romayasoundhealthandbeauty.com. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealth andbeauty@gmail.com.




Why June 30, 2015 Will Get an Extra (“Leap”) Second

By Elizabeth Zubritsky | NASA

June 30 2015 leap second

The day will officially be a bit longer than usual on Tuesday, June 30, 2015, because an extra second, or “leap” second, will be added.

“Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing down a bit, so leap seconds are a way to account for that,” said Daniel MacMillan of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Strictly speaking, a day lasts 86,400 seconds. That is the case, according to the time standard that people use in their daily lives – Coordinated Universal Time, or UTC. UTC is “atomic time” – the duration of one second is based on extremely predictable electromagnetic transitions in atoms of cesium. These transitions are so reliable that the cesium clock is accurate to one second in 1,400,000 years.

However, the mean solar day – the average length of a day, based on how long it takes Earth to rotate – is about 86,400.002 seconds long. That’s because Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing down a bit, due to a kind of braking force caused by the gravitational tug of war between Earth, the moon and the sun. Scientists estimate that the mean solar day hasn’t been 86,400 seconds long since the year 1820 or so.

This difference of 2 milliseconds, or two thousandths of a second – far less than the blink of an eye – hardly seems noticeable at first. But if this small discrepancy were repeated every day for an entire year, it would add up to almost a second. In reality, that’s not quite what happens. Although Earth’s rotation is slowing down on average, the length of each individual day varies in an unpredictable way.

The length of day is influenced by many factors, mainly the atmosphere over periods less than a year. Our seasonal and daily weather variations can affect the length of day by a few milliseconds over a year. Other contributors to this variation include dynamics of the Earth’s inner core (over long time periods), variations in the atmosphere and oceans, groundwater, and ice storage (over time periods of months to decades), and oceanic and atmospheric tides. Atmospheric variations due to El Niño can cause Earth’s rotation to slow down, increasing the length of day by as much as 1 millisecond, or a thousandth of a second.

Scientists monitor how long it takes Earth to complete a full rotation using an extremely precise technique called Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). These measurements are conducted by a worldwide network of stations, with Goddard providing essential coordination of VLBI, as well as analyzing and archiving the data collected.

The time standard called Universal Time 1, or UT1, is based on VLBI measurements of Earth’s rotation. UT1 isn’t as uniform as the cesium clock, so UT1 and UTC tend to drift apart. Leap seconds are added, when needed, to keep the two time standards within 0.9 seconds of each other. The decision to add leap seconds is made by a unit within the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service.

Typically, a leap second is inserted either on June 30 or December 31. Normally, the clock would move from 23:59:59 to 00:00:00 the next day. But with the leap second on June 30, UTC will move from 23:59:59 to 23:59:60, and then to 00:00:00 on July 1. In practice, many systems are instead turned off for one second.

Previous leap seconds have created challenges for some computer systems and generated some calls to abandon them altogether. One reason is that the need to add a leap second cannot be anticipated far in advance.

“In the short term, leap seconds are not as predictable as everyone would like,” said Chopo Ma, a geophysicist at Goddard and a member of the directing board of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service. “The modeling of the Earth predicts that more and more leap seconds will be called for in the long-term, but we can’t say that one will be needed every year.”

From 1972, when leap seconds were first implemented, through 1999, leap seconds were added at a rate averaging close to one per year. Since then, leap seconds have become less frequent. This June’s leap second will be only the fourth to be added since 2000. (Before 1972, adjustments were made in a different way.)

Scientists don’t know exactly why fewer leap seconds have been needed lately. Sometimes, sudden geological events, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, can affect Earth’s rotation in the short-term, but the big picture is more complex.

VLBI tracks these short- and long-term variations by using global networks of stations to observe astronomical objects called quasars. The quasars serve as reference points that are essentially motionless because they are located billions of light years from Earth. Because the observing stations are spread out across the globe, the signal from a quasar will take longer to reach some stations than others. Scientists can use the small differences in arrival time to determine detailed information about the exact positions of the observing stations, Earth’s rotation rate, and our planet’s orientation in space.

Current VLBI measurements are accurate to at least 3 microseconds, or 3 millionths of a second. A new system is being developed by NASA’s Space Geodesy Project in coordination with international partners. Through advances in hardware, the participation of more stations, and a different distribution of stations around the globe, future VLBI UT1 measurements are expected to have a precision better than 0.5 microseconds, or 0.5 millionths of a second.

“The next-generation system is designed to meet the needs of the most demanding scientific applications now and in the near future,” says Goddard’s Stephen Merkowitz, the Space Geodesy Project manager.

NASA manages many activities of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry including day-to-day and long-term operations, coordination and performance of the global network of VLBI antennas, and coordination of data analysis.  NASA also directly supports the operation of six global VLBI stations.

Proposals have been made to abolish the leap second. No decision about this is expected until late 2015 at the earliest, by the International Telecommunication Union, a specialized agency of the United Nations that addresses issues in information and communication technologies.

For more information about NASA’s Space Geodesy Project, including VLBI, visit:  https://space-geodesy.nasa.gov/




Newfound Brain/Lymph System Link May Lead to Better Health

By Stephen Feller | *UPI

Lymphatic System-39001540_m-680x380

Researchers in Finland confirmed a suspected link between the brain and lymphatic system using new imaging technology to answer the question of brain fluid draining into the lymph system without a direct link between the two.

The research team at the University of Helsinki said the discovery could be significant for the way brain diseases and disorders are handled.

“We have recently discovered that in the eye, which is another immune-privileged organ previously considered to lack lymphatic circulation, there exists a lymphatic-like vessel,” Aleksanteri Aspelund,a researcher at the University of Helsinki, said in a press release. “This led us to investigate the lymphatic nature of the brain in more detail.” Although they had to develop an effective method of seeing the vessels, the researchers were able to find them in the meningeal linings of a mouse, following to where they drain out of the skull through the foramina at its base, alongside arteries, veins and cranial nerves.

The lymphatic vessels hadn’t been found before, said medical student Salli Antila, because unless you know what you’re looking for, it’s easy to miss them.

*Originally entitled: “Direct Link Between Brain, Lymph System Found in Humans”

[Read more here]

The study is published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

 

Robert O'Leary 150x150Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products & modalities since the early 1970’s & he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist & father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive & safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield (MA), New England & “virtually” the world, with his website, www.romayasoundhealthandbeauty.com. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealth andbeauty@gmail.com.




Humans’ Built-in GPS is our 3-D Sense of Smell

By University of California – Berkeley | Science Daily GPS-39254034_m-680x380-Modified

Like homing pigeons, humans have a nose for navigation because our brains are wired to convert smells into spatial information, new research from the University of California, Berkeley, shows.

While humans may lack the scent-tracking sophistication of, say, a search-and-rescue dog, we can sniff our way, blindfolded, toward a location whose scent we’ve smelled only once before, according to the UC Berkeley study published today (June 17) in the journal PLOS ONE.

Similar investigations have been conducted on birds and rodents, but this is the first time smell-based navigation has been field-tested on humans. The results evoke a GPS-like superpower one could call an “olfactory positioning system.”

“What we’ve found is that we humans have the capability to orient ourselves along highways of odors and crisscross landscapes using only our sense of smell,” said study lead author Lucia Jacobs, a UC Berkeley psychology professor who studies evolution and cognition in animals and humans.

Smell is a primitive sense that our early ancestors used for foraging, hunting and mating, among other skills necessary for survival. Early sailors and aviators gave anecdotal reports of using odors to navigate, but there have been no experiential scientific studies on this until now.

The process of smelling, or olfaction, is triggered by odor molecules traveling up the nasal passage, where they are identified by receptors that send signals to the olfactory bulb — which sits between the nasal cavity and the brain’s frontal lobe — and processes the information. A key to the connection between smell, memory and navigation is that olfactory bulbs have a strong neural link to the brain’s hippocampus, which creates spatial maps of our environment.

“Olfaction is like this background fabric to our world that we might not be conscious of, but we are using it to stay oriented,” Jacobs said. “We may not see a eucalyptus grove as we pass it at night, but our brain is encoding the smells and creating a map.”

Pigeons and rats, for example, are known to orient themselves using odor maps, or “smellscapes,” but sighted humans rely more heavily on visual landmarks, and so the study turned up some surprising results.

Two dozen young adults were tested on orientation and navigation tasks under various scenarios in which their hearing, sight or smell was blocked. The test location was a 25-by-20-foot room where 32 containers with sponges were placed at points around the edge of the room. Two of the sponges were infused with essential oils such as sweet birch, anise or clove.

In the smell-only experiment, study participants were led, one at a time, into the room wearing blindfolds, earplugs and headphones and walked in circles for disorientation purposes. They spent a minute at a specific point on the grid, where they inhaled a combination of two fragrances. After being walked in circles again for disorientation purposes, they were tasked with sniffing their way back to the starting point where they had smelled the two fragrances.

[Read more here]


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of California – Berkeley. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Lucia F. Jacobs, Jennifer Arter, Amy Cook, Frank J. Sulloway. Olfactory Orientation and Navigation in Humans. PLOS ONE, 2015; 10 (6): e0129387 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129387

 

Robert O'Leary 150x150Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products & modalities since the early 1970’s & he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist & father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive & safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield (MA), New England & “virtually” the world, with his website, www.romayasoundhealthandbeauty.com. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealth andbeauty@gmail.com.




This Just in: Emotional & Rational Brains ‘physically different’

By Monash University | *Science Daily

Rational&EmotionalBrain-30819433_m-680x380Researchers at Monash University have found physical differences in the brains of people who respond emotionally to others’ feelings, compared to those who respond more rationally, in a study published in the journal NeuroImage.

The work, led by Robert Eres from the University’s School of Psychological Sciences, pinpointed correlations between grey matter density and cognitive and affective empathy. The study looked at whether people who have more brain cells in certain areas of the brain are better at different types of empathy.

“People who are high on affective empathy are often those who get quite fearful when watching a scary movie, or start crying during a sad scene. Those who have high cognitive empathy are those who are more rational, for example a clinical psychologist counselling a client,” Mr Eres said.

The researchers used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine the extent to which grey matter density in 176 participants predicted their scores on tests that rated their levels for cognitive empathy compared to affective — or emotional — empathy.

The results showed that people with high scores for affective empathy had greater grey matter density in the insula, a region found right in the ‘middle’ of the brain. Those who scored higher for cognitive empathy had greater density in the midcingulate cortex — an area above the corpus callosum, which connects the two hemispheres of the brain.

“Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates,” the study said.

The findings raise further questions about whether some kinds of empathy could be increased through training, or whether people can lose their capacity for empathy if they don’t use it enough.

“Every day people use empathy with, and without, their knowledge to navigate the social world,” said Mr Eres.

“We use it for communication, to build relationships, and consolidate our understanding of others.”

[Read more here]

*Originally entitled: “Emotional brains ‘physically different’ from rational ones”


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Monash University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Robert Eres, Jean Decety, Winnifred R. Louis, Pascal Molenberghs. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy. NeuroImage, 2015; 117: 305 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.038

 

Robert O'Leary 150x150Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products & modalities since the early 1970’s & he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist & father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive & safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield (MA), New England & “virtually” the world, with his website, www.romayasoundhealthandbeauty.com. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealth andbeauty@gmail.com.




Is Happiness In Your Genes?

Source: DNews

Why do some people smile more than others? Is the answer in our genes?   It turns out, how happy you are may be partly determined by your genes.

READ MORE:

 




How Scientists Are Looking For Ripples In Spacetime

Source: DNews

We are constantly searching for evidence of the Big Bang. One form of proof could be gravitational waves, but how do we go about finding them? Find out how in this video from DNews.




New Study Says Your Birth Month Could Help Predict Disease

Source: Newsy Science

A new study conducted by Columbia University Medical Center says there are at least 55 diseases that are significantly dependent on birth month. The study confirmed 39 known associations and discovered 16 new ones.

Transcript:

Some people swear by the predictive powers of zodiac signs. And while there’s no scientific evidence to support Capricorns having better luck with Scorpios, this guy says the month you’re born in could make a difference in your future health.

“We examined 1,600 diseases, approximately, and looked for birth month dependencies. We looked for significant deviations,” lead researcher Nicholas Tatonetti explained.

The scientists looked at a massive amount of data studying 1.7 million Columbia University Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital patients treated between 1985 and 2013.

The study conducted by Columbia University Medical Center says there are at least 55 diseases that are significantly dependent on birth month. The study confirmed 39 known associations and discovered 16 new ones.

But Tatonetti tells Time it’s less about birth month and more about birth season, calling the season a baby’s born a “proxy for variable environmental factors.” (Video via Institute of Medicine)

For example, a baby born in late summer or fall may be at a higher risk for asthma because the mother spent many of her pregnant months during the winter.

“The lowest risk we found was in May, and the highest risk was actually in October and November, those months we associated with the most diseases,” Tatonetti said.

But he also stresses for people not to be alarmed by the research and that factors like diet and exercise play a much larger role in your overall health.

The study was published in the Journal of American Medical Informatics Association.

Source:

Columbia University: Can your birth month predict disease risk?

 




Plants Know When They Are Being Eaten (and Freak Out)

By majestic | disinfo.com

Caterpillar_feeding_on_leaf-compressedIf you didn’t already recognize plants as sentient beings, maybe this study from the University of Missouri will change your mind:

Researchers at the University of Missouri, in a collaboration that brings together audio and chemical analysis, have determined that plants respond to the sounds that caterpillars make when eating plants and that the plants respond with more defenses.

“Previous research has investigated how plants respond to acoustic energy, including music,” said Heidi Appel, senior research scientist in the Division of Plant Sciences in the College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources and the Bond Life Sciences Center at MU. “However, our work is the first example of how plants respond to an ecologically relevant vibration. We found that feeding vibrations signal changes in the plant cells’ metabolism, creating more defensive chemicals that can repel attacks from caterpillars.”

Appel collaborated with Rex Cocroft, professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at MU. In the study, caterpillars were placed on Arabidopsis, a small flowering plant related to cabbage and mustard. Using a laser and a tiny piece of reflective material on the leaf of the plant, Cocroft was able to measure the movement of the leaf in response to the chewing caterpillar.

Cocroft and Appel then played back recordings of caterpillar feeding vibrations to one set of plants, but played back only silence to the other set of plants. When caterpillars later fed on both sets of plants, the researchers found that the plants previously exposed to feeding vibrations produced more mustard oils, a chemical that is unappealing to many caterpillars.

“What is remarkable is that the plants exposed to different vibrations, including those made by a gentle wind or different insect sounds that share some acoustic features with caterpillar feeding vibrations did not increase their chemical defenses,” Cocroft said. “This indicates that the plants are able to distinguish feeding vibrations from other common sources of environmental vibration.”

READ THE REST OF THE ARTICLE…




First Evidence That Parents’ Life Choices May Change Kid’s DNA

By Helen Thomson | *New Scientist ManHoldingDNA-39183766_m-680x380-Modified

For the first time, scientists have discovered a mechanism in humans that could explain how your lifestyle choices may impact your children and grandchildren’s genes.

Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors such as smoking, diet and stress, can leave their mark on the genes of your children and grandchildren. For example, girls born to Dutch women who were pregnant during a long famine at the end of the second world war had twice the usual risk of developing schizophrenia. Likewise, male mice that experience early life stress give rise to two generations of offspring that have increased depression and anxiety, despite being raised in a caring environment.

This has puzzled many geneticists, as genetic information contained in sperm and eggs is not supposed to be affected by the environment, a principle called the August Weismann barrier.

But we also know the activity of our own genes can be changed by our environment, through epigenetic mechanisms . These normally work by turning a gene on or off by adding or subtracting a methyl group to or from its DNA. These methyl groups can inactivate genes by making their DNA curl up, so that enzymes can no longer access the gene and read its instructions.

Such epigenetic mechanisms are high on the list of suspects when it comes to explaining how environmental factors that affect parents can later influence their children, such as in the Dutch second world war study, but just how these epigenetic changes might be passed on to future generations is a mystery. Although there is evidence from mice that these changes can be inherited, classical genetics says this shouldn’t be possible because epigenetic marks on sperm and eggs are wiped clean after fertilisation. But now, for the first time, researchers have observed some human genes evading this clean-up process.

Escaping genes

Azim Surani at Cambridge University and colleagues have demonstrated that some genes in the developing fetus escape the cleaning mechanism.

Surani’s team analysed methylation patterns in a type of fetal cell that later forms a fetus’s own sperm or eggs. We would expect these cells to have been wiped clean when the fetus’s epigenome was reset at the early embryo stage. “However, about 2 to 5 per cent of methylation across the genome escaped this reprogramming,” says Surani.

Any methylation in these areas of the genome might therefore impact future generations – and could provide the missing clue for how a person can pass on hereditary changes caused by their environment to their children and grandchildren.

Schizophrenia and obesity

Because this is only a small proportion of the genome, Surani says most epigenetic changes brought about by our environment are very unlikely to affect future generations, but that there may be a small window of opportunity for some of these to be passed on.

[Read more here]

*Originally entitled: “First Evidence of How Parents Lives Could Change Children’s DNA”

Robert O'Leary 150x150Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products & modalities since the early 1970’s & he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist & father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive & safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield (MA), New England & “virtually” the world, with his website, www.romayasoundhealthandbeauty.com. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealthandbeauty@gmail.com




New Evidence Emerges on the Origins of Life

Article Source: Phys.org

New research shows that the close linkage between the physical properties of amino acids, the genetic code, and protein folding was likely the key factor in the evolution from building blocks to organisms in Earth's primordial soup. Credit: Gerald Prins

New research shows that the close linkage between the physical properties of amino acids, the genetic code, and protein folding was likely a key factor in evolution from building blocks to organisms in Earth’s primordial soup. Credit: Gerald Prins

In the beginning, there were simple chemicals. And they produced amino acids that eventually became the proteins necessary to create single cells. And the single cells became plants and animals. Recent research is revealing how the primordial soup created the amino acid building blocks, and there is widespread scientific consensus on the evolution from the first cell into plants and animals. But it’s still a mystery how the building blocks were first assembled into the proteins that formed the machinery of all cells. Now, two long-time University of North Carolina scientists – Richard Wolfenden, PhD, and Charles Carter, PhD – have shed new light on the transition from building blocks into life some 4 billion years ago.

“Our work shows that the close linkage between the of amino acids, the , and protein folding was likely essential from the beginning, long before large, sophisticated molecules arrived on the scene,” said Carter, professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the UNC School of Medicine. “This close interaction was likely the key factor in the evolution from building blocks to organisms.”

Their findings, published in companion papers in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, fly in the face of the problematic “RNA world” theory, which posits that RNA – the molecule that today plays roles in coding, regulating, and expressing genes – elevated itself from the primordial soup of amino acids and cosmic chemicals to give rise first to short proteins called peptides and then to single-celled organisms.

Wolfenden and Carter argue that RNA did not work alone; in fact, it was no more likely that RNA catalyzed peptide formation than it was for peptides to catalyze RNA formation.

The finding adds a new layer to the story of how life evolved billions of years ago.

Its name was LUCA

The scientific community recognizes that 3.6 billion years ago there existed the last universal common ancestor, or LUCA, of all living things presently on Earth. It was likely a single-cell organism. It had a few hundred genes. It already had complete blueprints for DNA replication, protein synthesis, and RNA transcription. It had all the basic components – such as lipids – that modern organisms have. From LUCA forward, it’s relatively easy to see how life as we know it evolved.

Before 3.6 billion years, however, there is no hard evidence about how LUCA arose from a boiling caldron of chemicals that formed on Earth after the creation of the planet about 4.6 billion years ago. Those chemicals reacted to form amino acids, which remain the building blocks of proteins in our own cells today.

“We know a lot about LUCA and we are beginning to learn about the chemistry that produced like amino acids, but between the two there is a desert of knowledge,” Carter said. “We haven’t even known how to explore it.”

The UNC research represents an outpost in that desert.

READ THE REST OF THE ARTICLE…



Should Flibanserin (the New “Female Viagra”) Be Approved by the FDA?

Source: DNews

As women age, their sex drive can decrease significantly. Have doctors found a pill that can relight a woman’s sexual desire?

On 3 and 4 June, the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) will convene an advisory panel to recommend whether Flibanserin – touted as the “female Viagra” – should be approved for use in patients. The question is divisive, however – with strong arguments for and against. Studies have suggested that Flibanserin does boost sexual desire –  but its affect has been modest.

The question is, should there be a drug that many men will want their partner to use in order to increase the frequency of having sex – even if there is not a problem with low sex drive.

READ MORE: Everything you need to know about ‘female Viagra’




Discovery: Written Communication Around 37,000 Years Longer Than We Thought

Source: New Historian

Cave-painting-of-animals-compressed

Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons user: Daniel Miechhen

It’s common knowledge that the first systematic use of written symbols as a means of communication emerged in Sumer around 3,000 BCE, but now a Canadian researcher is suggesting that as far back as 40,000 years ago our ancestors communicated in writing. Genevieve von Petzinger, an anthropologist from the University of Victoria, studied hundreds of markings from 300 sites in addition to personally visiting and examining 52 caves where ancient humans had lived located in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and France. She then collected these markings in a database and looked for repeated use of the same symbol as well as for patterns of use for the different symbols.

What she discovered was surprising: there were just 30 symbols that were used repeatedly at these hundreds of sites, and this took place over a period as long as 30,000 years. These repeated uses, however, were not evident in all the caves throughout this period. Commenting on the find, another anthropologist, April Nowell, who teaches at the University of Victoria, told CBC that each of the symbols classified by von Petzinger seems to have gone through its very own “heyday” in one of the regions studied before its use declined. What’s more, Nowell noted, the symbols first started being used in one area, for instance in Spain, and then spread to another, such as France.

For von Petzinger there is no question that the symbols she studied had been used intentionally, but what surprised her even more than this intentionality was the fact that 65% of them were already in regular use 40,000 years ago. The reason this is so significant is that this was approximately the time when modern humans came to Europe and started displacing the Neanderthals. If humans were already using a large number of symbols for communication at that time, the origins of written communications may have been even earlier.

Read the rest of the article…




Vector Based Mathematics Proves Free Energy is Possible

 | Collective Evolution

numbers_math_free _energyIt has been said that the ability to prove that free energy is possible is non-existent because it defies various physical laws. But what if those physical laws are not entirely correct? What if the mathematics that proves the possibility of free energy was just not known, suppressed or hidden? In the video below, Randy Powell discusses Vortex Based Mathematics, which is a concept he was taught by Marko Rodin. He suggests that this mathematics proves that free energy is possible.

On a side note, I remember hearing at one time in the last few years (in a video interview) that there was about 25 equations that help to prove the existence of systems such as free energy, and these 25 equations were purposely suppressed and removed from educational institutions. Unfortunately I have not been able to locate the source of this claim and so it sits as nothing but a memory of once coming across it. If anyone reading this happens to know what I’m talking about, please let me know in the comments.

Free Energy Research

At first glance it might be easy to brush this off as not being possible since one of the main objections going around about free energy is that it simply is not possible. This rumor is spreading with no real evidence and therefore it is important to look into the evidence that does exist to support it. Below will be one example followed by an article which illustrates many examples.

The Casimir Effect is a proven example of free energy. The Casimir Effect illustrates zero point or vacuum state energy, which predicts that two metal plates close together attract each other due to an imbalance in the quantum fluctuations. You can see a visual demonstration of this concept here. The implications of this are far reaching and have been written about extensively within theoretical physics by researchers all over the world. Today, we are beginning to see that these concepts are not just theoretical, but instead very practical and simply very suppressed.

Read the entire article on Collective-Evolution.

 




Spherical Tokamak – a Smaller, Faster, Cheaper Route To Fusion Energy (“the Perfect Source of Energy”)

Source: Science Magazine

Fusion has the potential to be the perfect energy source—safe, clean, and limitless—but scientists are struggling to make it work. Now a change of shape may turn the mainstream reactor design, known as a spherical tokamak, into something simpler, faster, and cheaper.

Read more: Feature: The new shape of fusion

Related articles:

Featured image: A plasma glows inside MAST, a spherical tokamak. © CCFE