Study Analyzes Apollo 15 Images & Finds Evidence of “Excavation” & Unusual Structures on Moon

By | Collective Evolution

In Brief

  • The Facts:Members of the Society For Planetary SETI Research published a paper in the Journal of Space Exploration about features on the far side of the Moon that may be artificial. They analyzed images from Apollo 15 and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.
  • Reflect On:How much do we really know about our planet, the Moon, and other planets in our solar system? Have we rejected further study and evidence simply because they “don’t fit the frame” of accepted knowledge?

With so much information and misinformation in many different areas these days, it can be hard to know what to believe or what to trust. How did we get into this position? It seems there is a great divide on a number of different topics, and the Moon is no doubt one of them. Is it really that difficult to look at information and arrive at some sort of truth? I don’t believe so, but the most important thing is to be able to discuss information and ideas transparently, openly while having the ability to see from another perspective as well. If we cling to certain beliefs and positions and become polarized in them, we are not really opening ourselves up to new possibilities that may change the way we think and perceive not only our world but ourselves.

What Happened: A study published in the Journal Space Exploration in 2016 provides an in-depth analysis of images taken from Apollo 15 as well as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. According to the authors, there appears to be “two unusual features in the crater Paracelsus C on the far side of the moon,” the side that is never visible from Earth. By combining multiple images it becomes clear to them that what they are looking at are two walls “on either side of a narrow valley or passageway.”

Using single image shape from shading and 3D terrain visualization we show in a computer generated perspective view looking northeast that the southwest end appears to be the entrance to the passageway. A reverse angle view looking southwest shows the passageway ending at a rise of terrain at the other end, possibly leading underground. The terrain surrounding the two structures is not flat but appears “excavated ” by some unknown mechanism, natural or artificial. It is shown that these objects are visually different from the lunar background because their underlying structure is different.

The paper provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that certain features in the crater Paracelsus C on the far side of the moon may be artificial in origin.

The idea that these “passageways” may lead underground on the Moon correlates with the idea that the Moon may in fact be hollow, or at least partially. According to MIT’s Sean C. Solomon:

“The Lunar Orbiter experiments vastly improved our knowledge of the Moon’s gravitational field…indicating the frightening possibility that the Moon might be hollow.”

This was as far back as 1974, and it’s been a common theme. It arises due to the fact that we know very little about the Moon and all of the other moon’s within our solar system. That being said, the majority of scientific evidence points towards a solid Moon, but that doesn’t mean artificially built compartments within it are not a possibility.

It’s easier to explain the non-existence for the Moon, than it’s existence – NASA scientist Robin Brett

The best explanation for the Moon is observational error – the Moon doesn’t exist – Irwin Shapiro, Harvard Astrophysicist

The paper concludes by stating:

“Based on the evidence presented in this paper we believe this area in Paracelsus C is one such candidate that is worthy of future study by orbital missions and surface rovers. Both of the features analyzed in this area are statistically different from the surrounding terrain.”

Mark J. Carolotto, one of the authors of this paper is an image scientist with almost 40 years of experience in satellite remote sensing, image analysis, digital image processing, satellite imaging, remote sensing, and pattern recognition.  He studied optics, signal, and image processing at Carnegie-Mellon University from 1972-1981 where he received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering, and he works within the aerospace industry. Here are some of the peer-reviewed papers he’s authored and co-authored prior to this one.

On his YouTube channel, he provides some images from the paper in a video titled “Unusual Structures On The Far Side of The Moon.”

Possible Structures On The Moon. Not A Novel Idea/Observation

Reports and hypotheses about artificial structures on the moon are quite common and have been a common theme for quite some time. During the early years of SETI, in 1963, Carl Sagan spoke about the possibility of extraterrestrial visitation, as pointed out by the study:

It is not out of the question that artifacts of these visits still exist, or even that some kind of base is maintained (possibility automatically) within the solar system to provide continuity for successive expeditions. Because of weathering and the possibility of detection and interference by the inhabitants of the Earth, it would be preferable not to erect such a base on the Earth’s surface. The Moon seems one reasonable alternative. Forthcoming high resolution photographic reconnaissance of the Moon from space vehicles – particularly the back side – might bear these possibilities in mind. 

A number of books have been written over the years contemplating the subject. Amateur astronomer George Leonard’s 1976 book, Somebody Else is on the Moon is one example. Fred Steckling’s 1981 book, We Discovered Alien Bases on The Moon is another, and there are many more.

Fast forward to today and it’s hard to find solid evidence for structures on the Moon, but there are some strange leaks and testimony from people with interesting backgrounds that do make one ponder. For example, a classified document published by Wikileaks clearly implies that the United States had a “secret” base on the Moon that was destroyed by Russia. The idea that this is or was reality is strengthened given the fact that the U.S. government had plans to build a base on the Moon. Perhaps they already did? The leak from Wikileaks is dated 1979, a document from the government’s own publishing office from 1966 clearly shows one of the goals of the United States government was to build a base on the moon.

memorandum that was addressed to the CIA director regarding “Military Thought (Top Secret)” by Lieutenant General Korenevskiy highlights this point even more. It also appears to be from the 1960s:

“Already, interest in the moon is not limited to a study of questions and a discussion of discovered potentialities. Specific projects are being worked out which propose the construction of various structures under the surface of the moon from the freight compartments of missiles, and also the employment of various versions of pneumatic structures. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and also various American companies (“matin”, “Aerospace”, etc), are conducting a great deal of work in this direction.

Another document that compliments the Wikileaks one, also from the 1960s comes from the CIA keeping tabs on Soviet space plans, a portion of it reads as follows:

“The soviets have additionally stated their intention to establish a lunar base subsequent to manned lunar landing…If Society manned lunar landing is undertaken as a follow-on to extensive earth orbital operations and instrumented exploration of the moon, it is likely that they will enjoy some advantage in the establishment of a lunar base….It is possible that a late lunar landing may be followed fairly rapidly by the establishment of a Soviet base on the moon.”

The idea that humans may have built structures on the Moon, as well as perhaps intelligent extraterrestrials currently or in the past, is a hypothesis contemplated by many, so why do some people see it as ridiculous? This is a deeper question for later.

Rejecting Evidence Because It Conflicts With Our Beliefs

I thought it was interesting that the authors of the paper state the following:

A decidedly conservative mainstream scientific establishment often rejects anomalies based on subject matter alone, i.e., there cannot be alien artifacts on the moon because there are no alien artifacts on the moon (or other planets). Such a view is an example of circular reasoning, based on the belief that extraterrestrials do not exist, or if they do exist that they could not have traveled to our solar system.

How much do our beliefs and perceptions about our world limit and hinder our ability to discover and acknowledge ideas and results that may not “fit the frame?” How much do we limit our consciousness and perceptions about our world, who we truly are and what we are capable of as a result of our beliefs, and our determination to say “this is the way things are.”

Cassandra Vieten, Ph.D. and President/CEO at the Institute of Noetic Sciences, which was founded by Apollo 14’s Dr. Edgar Mitchell touches upon this point in her piece, “When Skeptics Face The Evidence.”

There seems to be a deep concern that the whole field will be tarnished by studying a phenomenon that is tainted by its association with superstition, spiritualism, and magic. Protecting against this possibility sometimes seems more important than encouraging scientific exploration or protecting academic freedom. But this may be changing. The session I presented in was very well-attended, and I found that most people, while not exactly open-minded, were open-hearted, thoughtful, and willing to engage in respectful discussion about the topic.

Why This Is Important

The implications of any findings that suggest an extraterrestrial presence have enormous implications and would truly expand human consciousness to another level. The UFO/Extraterrestrial phenomenon and the proof for its existence go much further than what is provided in this article.

The way we perceive our world, technology, history, metaphysics, consciousness, and the very nature of reality would change in an instant if this were realized by the collective. Perhaps it would inspire us to question the way we live here on Earth and why we do what we do? Do civilizations who travel the stars have such difficulty implementing solutions on their planet? What type of consciousness do they operate from? Do they collaborate peacefully, or divide themselves by country and ethnicity?

If we had technology that allowed us to provide abundance for all, which many believe we do, could we enact these solutions given the fact that we are so divided? Are we currently stuck in a state with fear, chaos, greed, and egoic mindsets for us to even successfully implement solutions? Are solutions like highly advanced clean energy technology useless if the consciousness of the human race and the way we think doesn’t change?

It’s not solutions or technology that will change our planet, it’s the place from within of those who operate these technologies that will determine whether or not we are ready for such things – this is us.

Change starts within, and perhaps humanity needs a new way of thinking and way of seeing our world, as well as ourselves, in order to move forward. Too often we point our fingers and place the blame on others like the ‘global elite,’ without ever realizing that ‘they,’ are us too, and we’re in this story together. We perpetuate our own human experience based on where we are at mentally and spiritually. It will be difficult to tackle the challenges we face today if we don’t step out of ourselves and observe our planet and the way we live from an outside perspective. We may simply perpetuate our current human experience if we attempt to tackle our problems from the same level of consciousness that created these problems.

A Mysterious Seismic ‘Blip’ From Deep Inside Earth Pulsates Every 26 Seconds

By | TheMindUnleashed.com

Every 26 seconds for the last 60 years seismologists have detected a ubiquitous pulse emanating from deep inside the Earth. The debate over the cause of this mysterious “microseism” has gone on for decades and produced several cogent hypotheses, but scientists still don’t know decisively what’s behind the phenomenon.

First observed and recorded by geologist Jack Oliver in the early 1960s, then studied more extensively in the following decades, the pulse is known to be stronger during storms. But storms don’t turn off and on every 26 seconds, nor do volcanos, which have also been proposed as the source.

In 2005, a graduate student named Greg Bensen tracked the origin of the pulse to a more narrow location, a single source in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western coast of Africa; six years later, another team honed in even closer, pinpointing the origin in an area of the Gulf of Guinea called the Bight of Bonny.

This team believed the waves crashing on that coast were responsible for the seismic blip. Others, however, weren’t convinced. Some believed it was caused by the sun itself. While tectonic activity, earthquakes, and volcanos regularly trigger solid seismic sounds, a more mellow soundscape of seismic static runs in near perpetuity.

Mike Ritzwoller, a seismologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who has studied the pulse for decades, says that while the pulse is a mystery, seismic activity, in general, is not.

Seismic noise basically exists because of the sun,” whose energy hits the equator and the poles unevenly, creating wind, storms, ocean currents, and waves, all of which work to displace and buffet energy onto the coastline.

“It’s like if you were tapping on your desk. It deforms the area near your knuckle, but then it’s being transmitted across the whole table,” Ritzwoller explains. “So someone sitting at the other side of the table, if they put their hand, or maybe their cheek, on the table, they can feel the vibration.” 

With the advent of more advanced tools and technologies, scientists have been able to study the pulse more closely, and most generally agree that the Bight of Bonny is ground zero for whatever is happening. Currently, many researchers are beginning to think the cause may be that this specific place on the edge of the enormous North American continental shelf (far below the ocean floor) is basically the other end of the desk Ritzwoller used as a metaphor. In other words, a drum the size of a continent is somehow consolidating its reverberations into a single spot.

Some researchers still believe volcanism is the answer and point to an active volcano on the island of São Tomé in the Bight of Bonny as evidence.

Why any of these physical phenomena would produce such a strange clockwork pulse every 26 seconds remains a mystery.

“We’re still waiting for the fundamental explanation of the cause of this phenomenon,” Ritzwoller says with a beat of optimism about the next decades of seismology. “I think the point [of all this] is there are very interesting, fundamental phenomena in the earth that are known to exist out there and remain secret.”

NASA’s SOFIA Discovers Water On Sunlit Surface of the Moon

By Science Daily

NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has confirmed, for the first time, water on the sunlit surface of the Moon. This discovery indicates that water may be distributed across the lunar surface, and not limited to cold, shadowed places.

SOFIA has detected water molecules (H2O) in Clavius Crater, one of the largest craters visible from Earth, located in the Moon’s southern hemisphere. Previous observations of the Moon’s surface detected some form of hydrogen but were unable to distinguish between water and its close chemical relative, hydroxyl (OH). Data from this location reveal water in concentrations of 100 to 412 parts per million — roughly equivalent to a 12-ounce bottle of water — trapped in a cubic meter of soil spread across the lunar surface. The results are published in the latest issue of Nature Astronomy.

“We had indications that H2O — the familiar water we know — might be present on the sunlit side of the Moon,” said Paul Hertz, director of the Astrophysics Division in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Now we know it is there. This discovery challenges our understanding of the lunar surface and raises intriguing questions about resources relevant for deep space exploration.”

As a comparison, the Sahara desert has 100 times the amount of water than what SOFIA detected in the lunar soil. Despite the small amounts, the discovery raises new questions about how water is created and how it persists on the harsh, airless lunar surface.

Water is a precious resource in deep space and a key ingredient of life as we know it. Whether the water SOFIA found is easily accessible for use as a resource remains to be determined. Under NASA’s Artemis program, the agency is eager to learn all it can about the presence of water on the Moon in advance of sending the first woman and next man to the lunar surface in 2024 and establishing a sustainable human presence there by the end of the decade.

SOFIA’s results build on years of previous research examining the presence of water on the Moon. When the Apollo astronauts first returned from the Moon in 1969, it was thought to be completely dry. Orbital and impactor missions over the past 20 years, such as NASA’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, confirmed ice in permanently shadowed craters around the Moon’s poles. Meanwhile, several spacecraft — including the Cassini mission and Deep Impact comet mission, as well as the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-1 mission — and NASA’s ground-based Infrared Telescope Facility, looked broadly across the lunar surface and found evidence of hydration in sunnier regions. Yet those missions were unable to definitively distinguish the form in which it was present — either H2O or OH.

“Prior to the SOFIA observations, we knew there was some kind of hydration,” said Casey Honniball, the lead author who published the results from her graduate thesis work at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa in Honolulu. “But we didn’t know how much, if any, was actually water molecules — like we drink every day — or something more like drain cleaner.”

SOFIA offered a new means of looking at the Moon. Flying at altitudes of up to 45,000 feet, this modified Boeing 747SP jetliner with a 106-inch diameter telescope reaches above 99% of the water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere to get a clearer view of the infrared universe. Using its Faint Object infraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST), SOFIA was able to pick up the specific wavelength unique to water molecules, at 6.1 microns, and discovered a relatively surprising concentration in sunny Clavius Crater.

“Without a thick atmosphere, water on the sunlit lunar surface should just be lost to space,” said Honniball, who is now a postdoctoral fellow at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “Yet somehow we’re seeing it. Something is generating the water, and something must be trapping it there.”

Several forces could be at play in the delivery or creation of this water. Micrometeorites raining down on the lunar surface, carrying small amounts of water, could deposit the water on the lunar surface upon impact. Another possibility is there could be a two-step process whereby the Sun’s solar wind delivers hydrogen to the lunar surface and causes a chemical reaction with oxygen-bearing minerals in the soil to create hydroxyl. Meanwhile, radiation from the bombardment of micrometeorites could be transforming that hydroxyl into water.

How the water then gets stored — making it possible to accumulate — also raises some intriguing questions. The water could be trapped into tiny beadlike structures in the soil that form out of the high heat created by micrometeorite impacts. Another possibility is that the water could be hidden between grains of lunar soil and sheltered from the sunlight — potentially making it a bit more accessible than water trapped in beadlike structures.

For a mission designed to look at distant, dim objects such as black holes, star clusters, and galaxies, SOFIA’s spotlight on Earth’s nearest and brightest neighbor was a departure from business as usual. The telescope operators typically use a guide camera to track stars, keeping the telescope locked steadily on its observing target. But the Moon is so close and bright that it fills the guide camera’s entire field of view. With no stars visible, it was unclear if the telescope could reliably track the Moon. To determine this, in August 2018, the operators decided to try a test observation.

“It was, in fact, the first time SOFIA has looked at the Moon, and we weren’t even completely sure if we would get reliable data, but questions about the Moon’s water compelled us to try,” said Naseem Rangwala, SOFIA’s project scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley. “It’s incredible that this discovery came out of what was essentially a test, and now that we know we can do this, we’re planning more flights to do more observations.”

SOFIA’s follow-up flights will look for water in additional sunlit locations and during different lunar phases to learn more about how the water is produced, stored, and moved across the Moon. The data will add to the work of future Moon missions, such as NASA’s Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER), to create the first water resource maps of the Moon for future human space exploration.

In the same issue of Nature Astronomy, scientists have published a paper using theoretical models and NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data, pointing out that water could be trapped in small shadows, where temperatures stay below freezing, across more of the Moon than currently expected. The results can be found here.

“Water is a valuable resource, for both scientific purposes and for use by our explorers,” said Jacob Bleacher, chief exploration scientist for NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. “If we can use the resources at the Moon, then we can carry less water and more equipment to help enable new scientific discoveries.”

SOFIA is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center. Ames manages the SOFIA program, science, and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association, headquartered in Columbia, Maryland, and the German SOFIA Institute at the University of Stuttgart. The aircraft is maintained and operated by NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center Building 703, in Palmdale, California.

Learn more about SOFIA at https://www.nasa.gov/sofia

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Journal Reference:

  1. C. I. Honniball, P. G. Lucey, S. Li, S. Shenoy, T. M. Orlando, C. A. Hibbitts, D. M. Hurley, W. M. Farrell. Molecular water detected on the sunlit Moon by SOFIANature Astronomy, Oct. 26, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41550-020-01222-x

Nobel Prize-Winning Physicist Says Space-Time ‘Bruises’ Are Evidence of Ancient, Pre-Big Bang Universe

By | TheMindUnleashed.com

One of the most respected physicists in the world recently stunned the science community by claiming there is evidence our universe formed in the aftermath of a far more ancient universe. Pointing to ‘bruises’ of Hawking radiation, which he believes are the final relics of a bygone era of reality, Sir Roger Penrose says the Big Bang was not the true beginning of this universe.

Penrose, who just won the Nobel Prize for his work proving the existence of black holes, says there are anomalous blotches, or bruises, of electromagnetic radiation on the fabric of space-time. He calls them ‘Hawking Points’ and says they are likely the final relics of energy regurgitated from black holes dating all the way back to the previous universe.

These views align with a theoretical model of the universe called “conformal cyclic cosmology,” which submits that the universe is continually expanding, contracting, and reforming itself. In this theory, the distant future of one universe becomes the Big Bang-like singularity of the next universe.

However, according to Penrose, the slate is not totally wiped clean. Black holes take an extremely long time to completely evaporate and, according to Penrose, their final output of Hawking radiation can linger on into the next universe and show up as the blotches that have been documented.

In an interview with The Telegraph, Penrose stated a summary of his theory:

“I claim that there is an observation of Hawking radiation. The Big Bang was not the beginning. There was something before the Big Bang and that something is what we will have in our future. We have a universe that expands and expands, and all mass decays away, and in this crazy theory of mine, that remote future becomes the Big Bang of another eon.”

“So our Big Bang began,” he continues, “with something which was the remote future of a previous eon and there would have been similar black holes evaporating away, via Hawking evaporation, and they would produce these points in the sky, that I call Hawking Points.

“We are seeing them. These points are about eight times the diameter of the Moon and are slightly warmed up regions. There is pretty good evidence for at least six of these points.”

Despite his success over the years, Penrose has many critics. One of them, Ethan Siegel, vigorously critiques the entire theory of “conformal cyclic cosmology” and specifically disputes Penrose’s contention that there are bruises of Hawking radiation on our universe.

“Like many before him, [Penrose] appears to have fallen so in love with his own ideas that he no longer looks to reality to responsibly test them,” Siegel writes.

Penrose responded to the criticism by reminding people that most scientists didn’t believe in black holes at first, either. They were considered mathematical curiosities that didn’t exist in reality.

So, could Penrose be right? Is our universe just the most current iteration of an infinite cosmological cycle? Can we see the dying glow of a former universe’s final black hole radiation?

Space: A Better Planet than Earth Found for Sustaining Life

Video Source: RT America

Scientists studying exoplanets say that the search for life-sustaining planets outside our solar system has been marred by undue focus on seeking planets similar to Earth, whereas there may be very different kinds of planets even more conducive to life than our own. RT America’s Natasha Sweatte reports for the News with Rick Sanchez.

Despite Increasing Risks and Opposition, SpaceX Launched 60 More Satellites – Enough to Offer Broadband

earth satellites

By B.N. Frank | Activist Post

SpaceX satellite and rocket explosions can and have happened. Last month, the company delayed a satellite fleet launch due to rocket “recovery issue” without explaining what that meant. Regardless, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) continues to approve tens of thousands of satellites and similar vehicles from SpaceX and other companies to provide internet coverage – including unsafe 5G – from space (see 123456789, 10, 111213) DESPITE increasing warnings, opposition, accidents and almost accidents.

The White House recently issued a directive that requires manufacturers to better monitor and safeguard satellites and similar vehicles. Will it make much difference? Who knows! What we do know is that SpaceX has launched 60 additional satellites even though internet coverage CAN be provided in ways that are less dangerous – like hardwired connections – and Americans HAVE ALREADY PAID to have it installed more safely anyway (see 12).

From ArsTechnica:

SpaceX has launched enough satellites for Starlink’s upcoming public beta

“Fairly wide public beta” to come after latest satellites reach target position.

SpaceX’s Starlink broadband has been available in a limited beta for the past few months, and SpaceX has now launched enough satellites for a public beta that will be available to more customers. However, the newly launched satellites aren’t in position yet, and SpaceX hasn’t revealed an exact availability date.

After yesterday’s launch of 60 Starlink satellites, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk wrote on Twitter that “[o]nce these satellites reach their target position, we will be able to roll out a fairly wide public beta in northern US & hopefully southern Canada. Other countries to follow as soon as we receive regulatory approval.”

Musk did not say when the satellites will reach their target position. SpaceX has over 700 satellites in orbit after yesterday’s launch.

Read full article

The FCC is supposed to protect the public from the telecom industry. Their failure to do so pre-dates the Trump administration. Lawsuits have been filed against the agency for NOT protecting Americans from unsafe levels of radiation as well as 5G deployment on the ground (see 123456) and in space.

Last year, the World Health Organization predicted that high levels of Electromagnetic Radiation exposure (aka “Electrosmog”) could lead to health issues in a significant percentage of the population. A few months ago people worldwide reported experiencing health issues after new satellites were launched. Of course, their health issues may not be from these additional satellites. Since 2018, there have also been reports of people and animals have been experiencing symptoms and illnesses after 5G was installed (see 1234). Then again, other installed sources of wireless – not just 5G – are emitting harmful radiation as well.

Some people, animals, and plants will obviously tolerate exposure to Electrosmog better than others. The same can be said of all toxins. This still doesn’t make any of this okay. It’s also happening on Trump’s watch. Tick tock.

Activist Post reports regularly about unsafe technology. For more information, visit our archives and the following websites:


ESO Telescope Spots Galaxies Trapped In The Web of a Supermassive Black Hole

Source: ESO | ScienceDaily

With the help of ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have found six galaxies lying around a supermassive black hole when the Universe was less than a billion years old. This is the first time such a close grouping has been seen so soon after the Big Bang and the finding helps us better understand how supermassive black holes, one of which exists at the center of our Milky Way, formed and grew to their enormous sizes so quickly. It supports the theory that black holes can grow rapidly within large, web-like structures that contain plenty of gas to fuel them.

“This research was mainly driven by the desire to understand some of the most challenging astronomical objects — supermassive black holes in the early Universe. These are extreme systems and to date, we have had no good explanation for their existence,” said Marco Mignoli, an astronomer at the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Bologna, Italy, and lead author of the new research published today in Astronomy & Astrophysics.

The new observations with ESO’s VLT revealed several galaxies surrounding a supermassive black hole, all lying in a cosmic “spider’s web” of gas extending to over 300 times the size of the Milky Way. “The cosmic web filaments are like spider’s web threads,” explains Mignoli. “The galaxies stand and grow where the filaments cross, and streams of gas — available to fuel both the galaxies and the central supermassive black hole — can flow along the filaments.”

The light from this large web-like structure, with its black hole of one billion solar masses, has traveled to us from a time when the Universe was only 0.9 billion years old. “Our work has placed an important piece in the largely incomplete puzzle that is the formation and growth of such extreme, yet relatively abundant, objects so quickly after the Big Bang,” says co-author Roberto Gilli, also an astronomer at INAF in Bologna, referring to supermassive black holes.

The very first black holes, thought to have formed from the collapse of the first stars, must have grown very fast to reach masses of a billion suns within the first 0.9 billion years of the Universe’s life. But astronomers have struggled to explain how sufficiently large amounts of “black hole fuel” could have been available to enable these objects to grow to such enormous sizes in such a short time. The new-found structure offers a likely explanation: the “spider’s web” and the galaxies within it contain enough gas to provide the fuel that the central black hole needs to quickly become a supermassive giant.

But how did such large web-like structures form in the first place? Astronomers think giant halos of mysterious dark matter are key. These large regions of invisible matter are thought to attract huge amounts of gas in the early Universe; together, the gas and the invisible dark matter form the web-like structures where galaxies and black holes can evolve.

“Our finding lends support to the idea that the most distant and massive black holes form and grow within massive dark matter halos in large-scale structures, and that the absence of earlier detections of such structures was likely due to observational limitations,” says Colin Norman of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, US, also a co-author on the study.

The galaxies now detected are some of the faintest that current telescopes can observe. This discovery required observations over several hours using the largest optical telescopes available, including ESO’s VLT. Using the MUSE and FORS2 instruments on the VLT at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, the team confirmed the link between four of the six galaxies and the black hole. “We believe we have just seen the tip of the iceberg, and that the few galaxies discovered so far around this supermassive black hole are only the brightest ones,” said co-author Barbara Balmaverde, an astronomer at INAF in Torino, Italy.

These results contribute to our understanding of how supermassive black holes and large cosmic structures formed and evolved. ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope, currently under construction in Chile, will be able to build on this research by observing many fainter galaxies around massive black holes in the early Universe using its powerful instruments.

More information

This research was presented in the paper “Web of the giant: Spectroscopic confirmation of a large-scale structure around the z = 6.31 quasar SDSS J1030+0524” to appear in Astronomy & Astrophysics.

The team is composed of M. Mignoli (INAF, Bologna, Italy), R. Gilli (INAF, Bologna, Italy), R. Decarli (INAF, Bologna, Italy), E. Vanzella (INAF, Bologna, Italy), B. Balmaverde (INAF, Pino Torinese, Italy), N. Cappelluti (Department of Physics, University of Miami, Florida, USA), L. Cassarà (INAF, Milano, Italy), A. Comastri (INAF, Bologna, Italy), F. Cusano (INAF, Bologna, Italy), K. Iwasawa (ICCUB, Universitat de Barcelona & ICREA, Barcelona, Spain), S. Marchesi (INAF, Bologna, Italy), I. Prandoni (INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia, Bologna, Italy), C. Vignali (Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy & INAF, Bologna, Italy), F. Vito (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy), G. Zamorani (INAF, Bologna, Italy), M. Chiaberge (Space Telescope Science Institute, Maryland, USA), C. Norman (Space Telescope Science Institute & Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, USA).

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Journal Reference:

  1. Marco Mignoli, Roberto Gilli, Roberto Decarli, Eros Vanzella, Barbara Balmaverde, Nico Cappelluti, Letizia P. Cassarà, Andrea Comastri, Felice Cusano, Kazushi Iwasawa, Stefano Marchesi, Isabella Prandoni, Cristian Vignali, Fabio Vito, Giovanni Zamorani, Marco Chiaberge, Colin Norman. Web of the giant: Spectroscopic confirmation of a large-scale structure around the z = 6.31 quasar SDSS J1030+0524Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2020; 642: L1 DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039045

New Study Finds Multiple Underground Water Reservoirs Discovered on Mars

By Elias Marat | TheMindUnleashed.com

(TMU) – A number of liquid bodies have been found on Mars, raising the tantalizing possibility that liquid water could exist on the Red Planet long believed to be desolate and hostile to life.

A major new study published Monday by the journal Nature Astronomy indicates that a subterranean reservoir of extremely salty water is located close to the Martian south pole. For scientists, the existence of such a lake – along with a number of other wet areas – is a tell-tale sign that the planet could harbor its own native microscopic life, given the importance of liquid water to survival.

While some researchers still remain unconvinced that liquid water exists on Mars, the new study lends credibility to the belief that the Mars Express robot orbiter made the discovery, according to tentative findings from 2018 during the mission to radar map the planet’s crust.

The research gleaned from those findings found that an underground “lake” of liquid water lies beneath layers of sediment close to the planet’s south pole, similar to the subglacial lakes that exist underneath Greenland and Antarctica’s ice sheets here on Earth.

The 2018 study was hailed as a huge breakthrough in the search for alien life in our universe, in general, and on Mars, specifically, but skeptics continued to question whether scientists had actually accumulated enough details to know with certainty that they had actually found a vast lake of liquid water.

However, this latest study used the techniques used by the satellites orbiting our own planet to study the massive subterranean lakes underneath Antarctic glaciers to confirm that the vast store of liquid does exist on Mars, and spans about 15 miles across.

Earth’s own subglacial lakes thrive with bacterial life, leading scientists to believe that their Martian counterparts could also be teeming with microscopic activity.

“We are much more confident now,” said Elena Pettinelli, a geophysics professor at Italy’s Roma Tre University, who led the research on this and the previous study. “We did many more observations, and we processed the data completely differently.”

The researchers were also able to use the method to locate a patchwork of other buried reservoirs in the region, separated from the main reservoir.

Researchers still don’t know precisely how deep the reservoirs go, but they are located a bit more than a mile below the surface.

The data also shows that the bodies are likely filled with hypersaline solutions or water that is so saturated with a thick concentrate of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium that they are able to remain liquid despite the extremely cold conditions on the Martian south pole.

If these pools are filled with liquid water, they are a likely venue for microbial alien life – which itself could be the remnant of life that may have existed billions of years ago on the planet if Mars had the sort of oceanic expanses of water on its surface that the Earth does.

If the discovery is confirmed, this will be the very first time that liquid water will have been found on Mars.

Dark Matter Is Even Stranger Than We Thought | SciShow News

Video Source: SciShow Space

Scientists can see how dark matter is distributed based on how its gravity affects light, but when astronomers compared recent data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope to current models, something didn’t add up. Does this mean our current assumptions about dark matter physics are wrong?

The Real Star Trek Technology of Today… (from Science Fiction to Fact)


By UAMN TV | Nexus Newsfeed

Many of us would have grown up watching science fiction TV shows like Star Trek, or even the Star Wars movies. Often dreaming about the incredible technology and what it would be like to live in a time of such creation. Well… look no further.. As we go about our daily lives, scientists from around the world are building, manufacturing and creating things that we would consider science fiction. The reality of Star Trek and Star Wars is now upon us as found in super technology.

Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products & modalities since the early 1970’s & he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist & father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive & safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield, Massachusetts and New England (USA) & “virtually” the world. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealthandbeauty@gmail.

Why Harvard Scientists Think This Object Is An Alien Spacecraft

Video Source: Tech Insider

Harvard scientists think that the first interstellar object detected in our solar system, called “Oumuamua,” could be an alien spacecraft. The scientists sought to explain a quirk in Oumuamua’s behavior, which led them to an unusual conclusion. No one knows what Oumuamua is or where it came from, and it’s too late to find out for sure.

Hubble’s Incredible Photo of the Cygnus Loop

While appearing as a delicate and light veil draped across the sky, this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope actually depicts a small section of the Cygnus supernova blast wave, located around 2600 light-years away. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, W. Blair.

Source: Universe Today

If you’re a Star Trek fan, you may think the above image portrays the “Nexus” from the movie Star Trek: Generations. In the film, the Nexus was a ribbon-like extra-dimensional realm that exists outside of normal space-time.

But this is actually a real image from the venerable Hubble Space Telescope, of the Cygnus Loop. This stunning picture from space shows just a small portion of a blast wave leftover from a supernova that took place, from our vantage point, in the northern constellation Cygnus the Swan.

The original supernova explosion blasted apart a dying star about 2,600 light-years away. This star was approximately 20 times more massive than our Sun, and the blast likely occurred between 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. Since then, the remnant has expanded 60 light-years from its center.

The shockwave marks the outer edge of the supernova remnant and continues to expand at incredible speeds, around 350 kilometers per second. The interaction of the ejected material and the low-density interstellar material swept up by the shockwave forms the distinctive veil-like structure seen in this image.

In Star Trek lore, if you were inside the Nexus, you existed in a perfect, idealized world. Staring at an incredible image like this makes you consider that something like that might just be possible.

Here’s another, previous Hubble image of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant from 1991, and below that is an image of the famous Veil Nebula, which is inside the larger Cygnus supernova remnant.

Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

This 1991 image from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope captures a small section of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Credit: NASA/Hubble

Veil Nebula. Image credit: ESA/Hubble Space Telescope

Source: ESA

Another ‘Oumuamua’ Plot Twist: Leading Explanation For Interstellar Object Is Aliens Again

By Jake Anderson | TheMindUnleashed.com

Last year, an extraordinary thing happened: for the first time in recorded history, astronomers and astrophysicists observed an interstellar object enter and leave our solar system. Over the years, they’ve documented plenty of comets, asteroids, and other cosmic bodies but all have been gravitationally bound to an orbit within our star system. This object, named ‘Oumuamua, came from outside our system, from a star or molecular cloud tens or even hundreds of millions of light-years away, and then left.

However, the most mysterious aspect of ‘Oumuamua’ was the fact that it seemed to be gaining momentum, as though it were being propelled by some kind of propulsion system. At first, astronomers tried to explain this anomaly away by contending the object was a comet, which is often naturally propelled by the burst of gas caused by melting ice. But ‘Oumuamua didn’t have the tail so common to comets that are outgassing.

So if it wasn’t a comet, how was it demonstrating non-gravitational acceleration through our cosmic neighborhood?

There were other anomalies and unusual characteristics associated with ‘Oumuamua. Why had it just been discovered so recently, when the Pan-STARRS system should have been able to spot it before? Why is its local standard of rest (LSR) frame of reference, motion, and speed so unusual? Why is its extremely elongated, cigar-like shape – with a length up to 10 times larger than its width – so rare and unlikely? Why is its surface so shiny that it reflects brightness 10 times higher than usual asteroids?

But by far, the biggest mystery was determining what was giving ‘Oumuamua that extra push of acceleration, which some scientists believed could indicate an artificial alien origin.

Finally, a new hypothesis emerged that seemed to satisfy all the criteria. Astrophysicists Darryl Seligman and Gregory Laughlin wrote a paper in which they proposed that ‘Oumuamua is a frozen comet comprised almost completely of molecular hydrogen. This would explain, they argued, why its outgassing wasn’t producing a visible comet tail and, more importantly, it would also explain the bursts of acceleration, as “hydrogen icebergs” are theorized to behave in such ways.

“Even though the hydrogen iceberg thing is a little exotic, it explains every single mysterious thing about ‘Oumuamua,” said Seligman in an interview.

But this explanation didn’t sit right with everyone precisely because of this exotic nature: hydrogen icebergs are hypothesized to be extremely rare in the universe.

Now there’s a new twist in the mystery, as astrophysicist/cosmologist Avi Loeb is once again arguing that the hydrogen explanation is unlikely and that it’s just as possible that ‘Oumuamua really is a piece of advanced alien technology, such as a light sail-propelled spaceship. From the beginning, Loeb had argued that the object’s outlandishly rare characteristics made it seem artificial in nature

The chair of Harvard University’s Astronomy Department has co-written a new article in which he argues that ‘Oumuamua really may be humanity’s first encounter with advanced aliens, even if there are no living biological beings on-board. Loeb attempts to debunk the hydrogen iceberg theory by pointing out that such a large size would not be able to sustain chunks of frozen hydrogen, as starlight would prevent them from sticking together. More importantly, he argues, the journey from a “giant molecular cloud” – the only place where a hydrogen comet could form – would be too long for such an object to have arrived here intact.

Seligman and Laughlin countered by trying to find an origin for ‘Oumuamua, identifying relatively nearby molecular clouds formed 30 million to 45 million years ago.

But Loeb says that doesn’t work either.

“Shortening the distance that that H2 iceberg needs to travel does not solve the problems we outline in our paper, because the H2 iceberg would have formed when its parent planetary system formed, billions of years ago,” and in the time since then the comet would have fallen apart.

Loeb says that as incredible as it may seem, the leading explanation for ‘Oumuamua is that it was created as some kind of transport system or interstellar observatory for an advanced alien species. His forthcoming book “Extraterrestrial: The First Sign of Intelligent Life Beyond Earth,” will likely expand on his reasons for believing this.

Breathtakingly Beautiful Space Phenomena

Source: Bright Side

Outer space is full of rare things and phenomena that will always impress people. And astronomers turn up new surprises every day. Nuclear pasta, moon-moons, nebulas that resemble butterflies, and a star that looks eerily similar to the Eye of Sauron. There are a lot of strange objects in space. Have you ever heard of a planet where it rains glass or an ice planet that’s burning?

Did you know that there are mini black holes? (Unlike their massive siblings, hypothetical mini black holes could be really tiny – not bigger than an atom). Or that about 4,000 light-years away from Earth, there’s a planet that seems to be one enormous diamond? The planet is denser than any other discovered so far and consists mostly of carbon. Interested? Let’s take a journey to the most amazing and bizarre places found in space!

Double Meteor Showers to Dazzle July and August Skies

By Jade Small | Creative Commons | TheMindUnleashed.com

(TMU) – While July started off with a penumbral eclipse of the Full Buck Moon, weather permitting, the skies will delight stargazers with overlapping meteor showers towards the end of the month when the Alpha Capricornids and the Delta Aquarids both peak from Tuesday evening, July 28 into Wednesday morning, July 29.

The moon will be 66% full at the time which could slightly dampen the brightness of the ‘shooting stars’, but there could be around 20 shooting stars per hour, increasing the odds of seeing quite a few.

The Alpha Capricornids, are active from July 3 through August 15, 2020. The radiant lies in a blank area between the constellations of Capricornus.

Although these showers are not particularly strong and rarely produce more than five showers per hour, they are known to produce bright fireballs during their active periods.

With good visibility from both sides of the equator, the alpha Capricornids peak will be during the night of July 28 and the morning of July 29.

The Delta Aquarids will be active from July 12 to August 23, 2020, and radiate from near the star Skat or Delta in the constellation Aquarius, the Water Bearer.

The radiant is located lower in the southern sky and from the northern hemisphere resulting in fewer rates than seen from the southern hemisphere.

These meteors are usually faint without persistent trails and fireballs but do produce good rates for a week centered on the night of maximum. The Delta Aquarids peak with the alpha Capricornids on the night of July 28 and the morning of July 29.

The Perseids, the most popular meteor shower, joins the party from July 17 to August 26, 2020, peaking in the northern hemisphere and reaching a strong maximum on August 12 or 13 where the showers will vary from 50-75 per hour at their maximum.

The Perseids, from where the meteors seem to radiate, is named after the constellation of Perseus the hero, and are particles released from the comet 109P/Swift/Tuttle.

The Perseids will peak on the night of August 11 and the morning of August 12, 2020, with the moon 47% full.

To get the most out of watching meteor showers you definitely need a clear and dark sky, away from the glow of city lights, so gather some friends and head for the countryside if you are able to.

Take something warm to wear, a blanket to lie on. Between midnight and dawn is the best time. And make sure you look towards the east.

Make sure you turn off all lights, including mobile phones, and allow your eyes to adjust to the dark. Allowing yourself a 20 to 30 minute adjustment time should do the trick. Don’t use binoculars or a telescope as they will limit your field of vision.