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Mars Loses an Ocean But Gains the Potential for Life

By Bob King | Universe Today

MarsPlanet-36672764_m-680x380

It’s hard to believe it now looking at Mars’ dusty, dessicated landscape that it once possessed a vast ocean. A recent NASA study of the Red Planet using the world’s most powerful infrared telescopes clearly indicate a planet that sustained a body of water larger than the Earth’s Arctic Ocean.

If spread evenly across the Martian globe, it would have covered the entire surface to a depth of about 450 feet (137 meters). More likely, the water pooled into the low-lying plains that cover much of Mars’ northern hemisphere. In some places, it would have been nearly a mile (1.6 km) deep.

Now here’s the good part. Before taking flight molecule-by-molecule into space, waves lapped the desert shores for more than 1.5 billion years – longer than the time life needed to develop on Earth. By implication, life had enough time to get kickstarted on Mars, too.

Using the three most powerful infrared telescopes on Earth – the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, the ESO’s Very Large Telescope and NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility – scientists at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center studied water molecules in the Martian atmosphere. The maps they created show the distribution and amount of two types of water – the normal H2O version we use in our coffee and HDO or heavy water, rare on Earth but not so much on Mars as it turns out.

In heavy water, one of the hydrogen atoms contains a neutron in addition to its lone proton, forming an isotope of hydrogen called deuterium. Because deuterium is more massive than regular hydrogen, heavy water really is heavier than normal water just as its name implies. The new “water maps” showed how the ratio of normal to heavy water varied across the planet according to location and season. Remarkably, the new data show the polar caps, where much of Mars’ current-day water is concentrated, are highly enriched in deuterium.

On Earth, the ratio of deuterium to normal hydrogen in water is 1 to 3,200, but at the Mars polar caps it’s 1 to 400.  Normal, lighter hydrogen is slowly lost to space once a small planet has lost its protective atmosphere envelope, concentrating the heavier form of hydrogen. Once scientists knew the deuterium to normal hydrogen ratio, they could directly determine how much water Mars must have had when it was young. The answer is A LOT!

Only 13% of the original water remains on the planet, locked up primarily in the polar regions, while 87% of the original ocean has been lost to space. The most likely place for the ocean would have been the northern plains, a vast, low-elevation region ideal for cupping huge quantities of water. Mars would have been a much more earth-like planet back then with a thicker atmosphere, providing the necessary pressure, and warmer climate to sustain the ocean below.

[Read more here]

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Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products and modalities since the early 1970’s, and he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist and father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive and safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield (MA), New England and “virtually” the world, through his new website, www.romayasoundhealthandbeauty.com. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealthandbeauty@gmail.com




What Would It Be Like to Live on the Moon?

 Joseph Castro | Space

stay on moon

Many space enthusiasts have long hoped to build a base on the moon, but the lunar surface’s harsh environment wouldn’t be an ideal place for humans to thrive. Credit: NASA

The idea of building a lunar outpost has long captured people’s imaginations. But what would it really be like to live on the moon?

Space exploration has long focused on the moon, with Earth’s satellite the setting for a number of significant missions. A 1959 Soviet spacecraft photographed the moon’s far side for the first time, and in 1969, NASA landed people on the lunar surface for the first time. Numerous missions followed, including NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter that beamed home the highest-resolution topographical lunar map to date, covering 98.2 percent of the moon’s surface.

Altogether, data beamed back from numerous missions suggest that no place on the moon would be a pleasant place to live, at least compared with Earth. Lunar days stretch for about 14 Earth days with average temperatures of 253 degrees Fahrenheit (123 degrees Celsius), while lunar nights also last 14 Earth days (due to the moon’s rotation) and maintain a frigid cold of minus 387 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 233 degrees Celsius).

“About the only place we could build a base that wouldn’t have to deal with these extremes is, oddly enough, near the lunar poles,” said Rick Elphic, project scientist for NASA’s LADEE probe, which studied the moon’s atmosphere and dust environment before performing a planned crash into the natural satellitein April 2014. These areas likely store vast amounts of water-ice and enjoy low levels of light from the sun for several months at a time.

“Instead of the blazing heat of lunar noon, it is a kind of perpetual balmy sunset, with temperatures around 0 degrees Celsius [32 degrees Fahrenheit] due to the low angle of the sun,” Elphic added.

Vacations away from pole outposts would offer up sights unlike anything on Earth. Decorating the moon’s vast lava plains are large impact-borne “mountains,” the tallest of which is 3.4 miles (5.5 kilometers) high, about the size of Mount Saint Elias on the border of Alaska and Canada. “Skylight” holes puncture some of the plains where lava likely drained into sub-surface caverns — the perfect adventure for lunar spelunkers.

The moon also sports huge craters, such as the 25-mile-wide (40 km) Aristarchus crater. A view from the rim of Aristarchus would “dwarf the Grand Canyon and make Meteor Crater in Arizona look like a hole in a putting green,” Elphic told Space.com via email.

Another dazzling sight on the moon would be asolar eclipse, which occurs when the Earth blocks the sun. From the moon, the Earth would appear as a ring of red-orange light that dominates the sky.

And though the moon is on average a whopping 238,855 miles (384,400 km) from Earth, sending your vacation or eclipse photos home to family and friends would take a little more than a second.

As for recreational activities, the moon’s gravity — at one-sixth that of Earth — would make lunar sports a bit of a challenge. A lunar colonizer could jump and throw a ball six times higher and farther than on Earth. In other words, the distance between goal posts on an American lunar football field would need to be 600 yards (549 meters), as opposed to the 100-yards (91 m) fields on Earth, Elphic said.

read rest of the article here




Large Earthquakes, Mars Mystery Plume, Major Storms | Earth & Space News Feb 17, 2015

Source: Suspicious0bservers

Earth and Space  News Feb 17, 2015:




The Fourth Phase of Water

Dr. Mercola | Waking Times

Water is clearly one of the most important factors for your health—especially when you consider that your body actually consists of over 99 percent water molecules! I sincerely believe water is a really under-appreciated part of the equation of optimal health.

I’ve previously interviewed Dr. Gerald Pollack, who is one of the leading premier research scientists in the world when it comes to understanding the physics of water, and what it means to your health.

Besides being a professor of bio-engineering at the University of Washington, he’s also the founder and editor-in-chief of a scientific journal called Water, and has published many peer-reviewed scientific papers on this topic. He’s even received prestigious awards from the National Institutes of Health.

His book, The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor, is a phenomenal read that is easy to understand even for the non-professional.

It clearly explains the theory of the fourth phase of water, which is nothing short of ground-breaking. The fourth phase of water is, in a nutshell, living water. It’s referred to as EZ water—EZ standing for “exclusion zone”—which has a negative charge. This water can hold energy, much like a battery, and can deliver energy too.

For years, Dr. Pollack had researched muscles and how they contract, and it struck him as odd that the most common ideas about muscle contraction do not involve water, despite the fact that muscle tissue consists of 99 percent water molecules.

How could it be that 99 percent of the molecules were ignored? How could it be that muscle contracts without involving the water in some way? These questions help catalyze his passionate investigation into water.

So You Think You Understand Water?

Gilbert Ling, who was a pioneer in this field, discovered that water in human cells is not ordinary water (H2O), but something far more structured and organized.

“I began to think about water in the context of biology: if water inside the cell was ordered and structured and not bulk water or ordinary water as most biochemists and cell biologists think, then it is really important,” Dr. Pollack says.

Dr. Pollack’s book also touches on some of the most basic features of water, many of which are really not understood. For example, how does evaporation take place? Why does a tea kettle whistle? Also, despite the fact that conventional science tells us freezing is supposed to occur at zero degrees Celsius, experiments show that it can freeze in many different temperatures down to minus 50 degrees Celsius.

There’s actually no one single freezing point for water! Other experiments show that the boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius (or 212 degrees Fahrenheit) does not always hold true either.

“There’s a famous website1 put together by a British scientist, Martin Chaplin. Martin lists numerous anomalies associated with water,” Dr. Pollack says. “In other words, things that shouldn’t be according to what we know about water…

The more anomalies we have, the more we begin to think that maybe there’s something fundamental about water that we really don’t know. That’s the core of what I’m trying to do. In our laboratory at the University of Washington, we’ve done many experiments over the last decade. These experiments have clearly shown the existence of this additional phase of water.”

The reason this fourth phase of water is called the exclusion zone or EZ is because the first thing Dr. Pollack’s team discovered is that it profoundly excludes things. Even small molecules are excluded from EZ water. Surprisingly, EZ water appears in great abundance, including inside most of your cells. Even your extra-cellular tissues are filled with this kind of water.

Read the Entire Article.

 




Massive Plasma Filament Faces Earth | Earth & Space News Feb 8, 2015

Source: Suspicious0bservers

Earth & Space News Feb 8, 2014:

Spaceweather – massive plasma filament facing Earth;

Earthquake watch;

Global weather




FAA Grants Las Vegas Billionaire Exclusive Rights To Commercial Enterprises on the MOON

The FAA just issued a letter to commercial enterprise Bigelow Aerospace — a company owned by real estate mogul, Robert Bigelow who made his millions developing Los Vegas. The letter gives gives Bigelow Aerospace exclusive rights to territory on the moon. This partly complies with the 1967 United Nations Outer Space Treaty and partly flies in the face of it. Either way, the letter marks an important turning point for all of humanity: the space race is back on, and it’s more real (estate) than ever.




Enormous Plasma Filament Watch, Storms | Earth & Space News February 7, 2015

Source: Suspicious0bservers

Earth & Space News Feb 7, 2014:




Earth & Space News Feb 4, 2015: Solar Pole Flip May Finally Be Complete

Source: Suspicious0bservers

Earth & Space News Feb 4, 2014:




Magnetic Storm, Plasma Eruptions, God’s Hand | Earth & Space News Feb 2, 2015

Source: Suspicious0bservers

Earth & Space News Feb 2, 2014:




Earth & Space News Feb 1: Quake Swarm, Space Weather


Source: Suspicious0bservers

Earth & Space News for Feb 1, 2015:




Does Milky Way hide a portal to the distant Universe?

Kulvinder Singh |  Sen

milky way galaxyOur Milky Way could be harbouring a cosmic “wormhole”—that exotic short cut across the Universe made famous in science fiction shows and films—according to a team of scientists in India, Italy and the USA. Such a wormhole could offer an alternative to Dark Matter as an explanation for the missing mass in our Galaxy, say the scientists in a paper submitted to The Annals of Physics.

It could even be traversable, according to the team. However, they do not believe their calculations actually proves the existence of a Galactic wormhole. So-called cosmic wormholes have been a staple of science fiction for decades as a means of travelling to distant worlds by literally taking a short-cut through the Universe itself. Just such a wormhole features in the blockbuster film Interstellar. And far from being fanciful plot devices, wormholes have a respectable origin in physics, where they’re known as Einstein-Rosen bridges.

“The distribution of Dark Matter in our Galaxy mimics the presence of a stable wormhole, which we inferred by solving the standard equation for General Relativity,” Dr Paolo Salucci of the International School for Advanced Studies, Italy, told Sen. Salucci is referring to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, which tells us that there should be more mass in the Milky Way than what we see from all of the stars, planets, dust and gas clouds it contains.

read rest of the article here




Mysterious Planet X May Really Lurk Undiscovered in Our Solar System

Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Mark Wall | Space.com

At least two planets larger than Earth likely lurk in the dark depths of space far beyond Pluto, just waiting to be discovered, a new analysis of the orbits of “extreme trans-Neptunian objects” (ETNOs) suggests.

Researchers studied 13 ETNOs — frigid bodies such as the dwarf planet Sedna that cruise around the sun at great distances in elliptical paths. [Meet Our Solar System’s Dwarf Planets]

Theory predicts a certain set of details for ETNO orbits, study team members said. For example, they should have a semi-major axis, or average distance from the sun, of about 150 astronomical units (AU). (1 AU is the distance from Earth to the sun — roughly 93 million miles, or 150 million kilometers.) These orbits should also have an inclination, relative to the plane of the solar system, of almost 0 degrees, among other characteristics.

But the actual orbits of the 13 ETNOs are quite different, with semi-major axes ranging from 150 to 525 AU and average inclinations of about 20 degrees.

“This excess of objects with unexpected orbital parameters makes us believe that some invisible forces are altering the distribution of the orbital elements of the ETNOs, and we consider that the most probable explanation is that other unknown planets exist beyond Neptune and Pluto,” lead author Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, of the Complutense University of Madrid, said in a statement.

“The exact number is uncertain, given that the data that we have is limited, but our calculations suggest that there are at least two planets, and probably more, within the confines of our solar system,” he added.

The potential undiscovered worlds would be more massive than Earth, researchers said, and would lie about 200 AU or more from the sun — so far away that they’d be very difficult, if not impossible, to spot with current instruments.

Read the entire article.

 




NASA’s ‘Largest Picture Ever’ Taken – A Must See Video With Amazing Imagery

 MIKE BARRETT | NaturalSociety | Jan 22nd 2014

SpaceWith today’s technology, it is easier than ever to relish in the beauties of not only planet Earth, but the universe. We have always  been able to look up at the stars and have even had a telescope for some time that enabled us to focus in on the literal outer-beauty of where we are – and what’s out there is truly amazing. Complimenting this even further, NASA has released what is deemed the largest picture ever taken – and it will blow you away.

The image above takes you through over 100 million stars and travels more than 40,000 light years. It provides a startling glimpse at the sheer scale of our nearest galactic neighbor.

On January 5th 2015, NASA revealed an image of the closest galaxy to us – known as the Andromeda galaxy. Captured using the NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope, NASA took 411 images, only to merge them into what is deemed the largest image ever created. Coming in at a whopping 1.5 billion pixels and requiring approximately 4.3 gigabytes of disk space on a PC, the picture is sure to remind you of how amazing and vast things can be.

I recommend watching this video in full screen, with the sound ON, and with the lights OFF. It’s best to let yourself float in the seemingly endless unreachable we call space.

Where are we? Where do things begin? And where does it stop? You don’t have to answer these questions. It is enough to simply ask.

Check out these other amazing NASA photos.

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The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has snapped the best ever image of the Antennae Galaxies. Hubble has released images of these stunning galaxies twice before, once using observations from its Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) in 1997, and again in 2006 from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS).

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This new Hubble image, captured and released to celebrate the telescope’s 23rd year in orbit, shows part of the sky in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter). Rising like a giant seahorse from turbulent waves of dust and gas is the Horsehead Nebula, otherwise known as Barnard 33.

And before you go, be sure to check out some of the beauty right here on planet Earth.

About Mike Barrett:
Google Plus Profile| Mike is the co-founder, editor, and researcher behind Natural Society. Studying the work of top natural health activists, and writing special reports for top 10 alternative health websites, Mike has written hundreds of articles and pages on how to obtain optimum wellness through natural health.

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Two Planets As Big As Earth ‘Could Be On Edge Of Solar System’

The Guardian

An artist’s impression of one of the two as-yet undiscovered planets. Photograph: Nasa/JPL-Caltech/PA

An artist’s impression of one of the two as-yet undiscovered planets. Photograph: Nasa/JPL-Caltech/PA

At least two as-yet undiscovered planets as big as Earth or larger may be hiding in the outer fringes of the solar system, scientists believe.

The secret worlds are thought to exist beyond the orbits of Neptune, the furthest true planet from the Sun, and the even more distant tiny “dwarf planet” Pluto.

The evidence comes from observations of a belt of space rocks known as “extreme trans-Neptunian objects” (Etnos).

Orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune, Etnos should be distributed randomly with paths that have certain defined characteristics. But a dozen of the bodies have completely unexpected orbital values consistent with them being influenced by the gravitational pull of something unseen.

Spanish lead scientist Professor Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, from the Complutense University of Madrid, quoted by the Spanish scientific news service, Sinc, said: “This excess of objects with unexpected orbital parameters makes us believe that some invisible forces are altering the distribution of the orbital elements of the Etno, and we consider that the most probable explanation is that other unknown planets exist beyond Neptune and Pluto.

[read rest of the article here]




Potential Signs Of Ancient Life In Mars Rover Photos

Phys

A rock bed at the Gillespie Lake outcrop on Mars displays potential signs of ancient microbial sedimentary structures. Credit: NASA

A rock bed at the Gillespie Lake outcrop on Mars displays potential signs of ancient microbial sedimentary structures. Credit: NASA

A careful study of images taken by the NASA rover Curiosity has revealed intriguing similarities between ancient sedimentary rocks on Mars and structures shaped by microbes on Earth. The findings suggest, but do not prove, that life may have existed earlier on the Red Planet.

The photos were taken as Curiosity drove through the Gillespie Lake outcrop in Yellowknife Bay, a dry lakebed that underwent seasonal flooding billions of years ago. Mars and Earth shared a similar early history. The Red Planet was a much warmer and wetter world back then.

On Earth, carpet-like colonies of microbes trap and rearrange sediments in shallow bodies of water such as lakes and costal areas, forming distinctive features that fossilize over time. These structures, known as microbially-induced sedimentary structures (or MISS), are found in shallow water settings all over the world and in ancient rocks spanning Earth’s history.

Nora Noffke, a geobiologist at Old Dominion University in Virginia, has spent the past 20 years studying these microbial structures. Last year, she reported the discovery of MISS that are 3.48 billion years old in the Western Australia’s Dresser Formation, making them potentially the oldest signs of life on Earth.

In a paper published online last month in the journal Astrobiology (the print version comes out this week), Noffke details the striking morphological similarities between Martian sedimentary structures in the Gillespie Lake outcrop (which is at most 3.7 billion years old) and microbial structures on Earth.

The distinctive shapes include erosional remnants, pockets, domes, roll-ups, pits, chips and cracks, which on Earth can extend from a few centimeters to many kilometers.

Although Noffke makes a tantalizing case for possible signs of ancient life on Mars, her report is not a definitive proof that these structures were shaped by biology. Getting such confirmation would involve returning rock samples to Earth and conducting additional microscopic analyses, a mission that isn’t scheduled anytime in the near future.

“All I can say is, here’s my hypothesis and here’s all the evidence that I have,” Noffke says, “although I do think that this evidence is a lot.”

“The fact that she pointed out these structures is a great contribution to the field,” says Penelope Boston, a geomicrobiologist at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. “Along with the recent reports of methane and organics on Mars, her findings add an intriguing piece to the puzzle of a possible history for life on our neighboring planet.”

A Careful Analysis

“I’ve seen many papers that say ‘Look, here’s a pile of dirt on Mars, and here’s a pile of dirt on Earth,'” says Chris McKay, a planetary scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center and an associate editor of the journal Astrobiology. “And because they look the same, the same mechanism must have made each pile on the two planets.'”

McKay adds: “That’s an easy argument to make, and it’s typically not very convincing. However, Noffke’s paper is the most carefully done analysis of the sort that I’ve seen, which is why it’s the first of its kind published in Astrobiology.”

Potential signs of ancient life in Mars rover photos
Overlay of sketch on photograph from above to assist in the identification of the structures on the rock bed surface. Image credit: Noffke (2105). Credit: ASTROBIOLOGY, published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

The images on which Noffke drew are publicly available on the Mars Science Laboratory page on NASA’s website.

“In one image, I saw something that looked very familiar,” Noffke recalls. “So I took a closer look, meaning I spent several weeks investigating certain images centimeter by centimeter, drawing sketches, and comparing them to data from terrestrial structures. And I’ve worked on these for 20 years, so I knew what to look for.”

[read full post here]