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Study: Machu Picchu Older Than Expected

Credit: Photo by Pedro Szekely. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike CC BY-SA 2.0

By Mike Cummings | Phys.org

Machu Picchu, the famous 15th-century Inca site in southern Peru, is up to several decades older than previously thought, according to a new study led by Yale archaeologist Richard Burger.

Burger and researchers from several U.S. institutions used accelerator (AMS)—an advanced form of radiocarbon dating—to date recovered during the early 20th century at the monumental complex and onetime country estate of Inca Emperor Pachacuti located on the eastern face of the Andes Mountains.

Their findings, published in the journal Antiquity, reveal that Machu Picchu was in use from about A.D. 1420 to A.D. 1530—ending around the time of the Spanish conquest—making the site at least 20 years older than the accepted historical record suggests and raising questions about our understanding of Inca chronology.

Historical sources dating from the Spanish invasion of the Inca Empire indicate that Pachacuti seized power in A.D. 1438 and subsequently conquered the lower Urubamba Valley where Machu Picchu is located. Based on those records, scholars have estimated that the site was built after A.D. 1440, and perhaps as late as A.D. 1450, depending on how long it took Pachacuti to subdue the region and construct the stone palace.

The AMS testing indicates that the historical timeline is inaccurate.

“Until now, estimates of Machu Picchu’s antiquity and the length of its occupation were based on contradictory historical accounts written by Spaniards in the period following the Spanish conquest,” said Burger, the Charles J. MacCurdy Professor of Anthropology in Yale’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences. “This is the first study based on to provide an estimate for the founding of Machu Picchu and the length of its occupation, giving us a clearer picture of the site’s origins and history.”

The finding suggests that Pachacuti, whose reign set the Inca on the path to becoming pre-Columbian America’s largest and most powerful empire, gained power and began his conquests decades earlier than textual sources indicate. As such, it has implications for people’s wider understanding of Inca history, Burger said.

“The results suggest that the discussion of the development of the Inca empire based primarily on colonial records needs revision,” he said. “Modern radiocarbon methods provide a better foundation than the historical records for understanding Inca chronology.”

The AMS technique can date bones and teeth that contain even small amounts of organic material, expanding the pool of remains suitable for scientific analysis. For this study, the researchers used it to analyze human samples from 26 individuals that were recovered from four cemeteries at Machu Picchu in 1912 during excavations led by Yale professor Hiram Bingham III, who had “rediscovered” the site the previous year.

The bones and teeth used in the analysis likely belonged to retainers, or attendants, who were assigned to the royal estate, the study states. The remains show little evidence of involvement in heavy physical labor, such as construction, meaning that they likely were from the period when the site functioned as a country palace, not when it was being built, the researchers said.




New Evidence In Search For the Mysterious Denisovans

By University of Adelaide | ScienceDaily

An international group of researchers led by the University of Adelaide has conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis and found no evidence of interbreeding between modern humans and the ancient humans known from fossil records in Island Southeast Asia. They did find further DNA evidence of our mysterious ancient cousins, the Denisovans, which could mean there are major discoveries to come in the region.

In the study published in Nature Ecology and Evolution, the researchers examined the genomes of more than 400 modern humans to investigate the interbreeding events between ancient humans and modern human populations who arrived at Island Southeast Asia 50,000-60,000 years ago.

In particular, they focused on detecting signatures that suggest interbreeding from deeply divergent species known from the fossil record of the area.

The region contains one of the richest fossil records (from at least 1.6 million years) documenting human evolution in the world. Currently, there are three distinct ancient humans recognized from the fossil record in the area: Homo erectus, Homo floresiensis (known as Flores Island hobbits), and Homo luzonensis.

These species are known to have survived until approximately 50,000-60,000 years ago in the cases of Homo floresiensis and Homo luzonensis, and approximately 108,000 years for Homo erectus, which means they may have overlapped with the arrival of modern human populations.

The results of the study showed no evidence of interbreeding. Nevertheless, the team was able to confirm previous results showing high levels of Denisovan ancestry in the region.

Lead author and ARC Research Associate from the University of Adelaide Dr. João Teixeira said: “In contrast to our other cousins the Neanderthals, which have an extensive fossil record in Europe, the Denisovans are known almost solely from the DNA record. The only physical evidence of Denisovan existence has been a finger bone and some other fragments found in a cave in Siberia and, more recently, a piece of jaw found in the Tibetan Plateau.”

“We know from our own genetic records that the Denisovans mixed with modern humans who came out of Africa 50,000-60,000 years ago both in Asia and as the modern humans moved through Island Southeast Asia on their way to Australia.

“The levels of Denisovan DNA in contemporary populations indicates that significant interbreeding happened in Island Southeast Asia.

“The mystery then remains, why haven’t we found their fossils alongside the other ancient humans in the region? Do we need to re-examine the existing fossil record to consider other possibilities?”

Co-author Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London added:

“While the known fossils of Homo erectus, Homo floresiensis, and Homo luzonensis might seem to be in the right place and time to represent the mysterious ‘southern Denisovans’, their ancestors were likely to have been in Island Southeast Asia at least 700,000 years ago. Meaning their lineages are too ancient to represent the Denisovans who, from their DNA, were more closely related to the Neanderthals and modern humans.”

Co-author Prof Kris Helgen, Chief Scientist and Director of the Australian Museum Research Institute, said: “These analyses provide an important window into human evolution in a fascinating region, and demonstrate the need for more archaeological research in the region between mainland Asia and Australia.”

Helgen added: “This research also illuminates a pattern of ‘megafaunal’ survival which coincides with known areas of pre-modern human occupation in this part of the world. Large animals that survive today in the region include the Komodo Dragon, the Babirusa (a pig with remarkable upturned tusks), and the Tamaraw and Anoas (small wild buffalos).

“This hints that long-term exposure to hunting pressure by ancient humans might have facilitated the survival of the megafaunal species in subsequent contacts with modern humans. Areas without documented pre-modern human occurrence, like Australia and New Guinea, saw complete extinction of land animals larger than humans over the past 50,000 years.”

Dr. Teixeira said: “The research corroborates previous studies that the Denisovans were in Island Southeast Asia, and that modern humans did not interbreed with more divergent human groups in the region. This opens two equally exciting possibilities: either a major discovery is on the way, or we need to re-evaluate the current fossil record of Island Southeast Asia.”

“Whichever way you choose to look at it, exciting times lie ahead in palaeoanthropology.”


Story Source:

Materials provided by the University of Adelaide. Originally written by Kelly Brown. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. João C. Teixeira, Guy S. Jacobs, Chris Stringer, Jonathan Tuke, Georgi Hudjashov, Gludhug A. Purnomo, Herawati Sudoyo, Murray P. Cox, Raymond Tobler, Chris S. M. Turney, Alan Cooper, Kristofer M. Helgen. Widespread Denisovan ancestry in Island Southeast Asia but no evidence of substantial super-archaic hominin admixtureNature Ecology & Evolution, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41559-021-01408-0



59 Ancient Coffins Buried For 2,600 Years Discovered In Incredible Archaeological Find In Egypt

The coffins, sealed more than 2,500 years ago, date back to the Late Period of ancient Egypt [Khaled Desouki/AFP] 

By John Vibes | TheMindUnleashed.com

(TMU) – 59 well-preserved and sealed wooden coffins were recently discovered by archeologists in Egypt, and it is possible that there could be even more waiting to be discovered.

Three weeks ago researchers first announced that they found 13 coffins, and then further searches in the area revealed that there were even more. Scientists estimate that the coffins were buried over 2,500 years ago, and some of the remains were wrapped in burial cloth that showed hieroglyphic inscriptions.

The discovery was made in the burial ground of Saqqara, which is located just south of Cairo, near the 4,700-year-old pyramid of Djoser.

“We are very happy about this discovery,” said Mostafa Waziri, secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in the Egyptian government.

Tourism and Antiquities Minister Khaled al-Anani said that the coffins can be dated back to the Late Period of ancient Egypt, which is estimated to be from the sixth or seventh century BC.

“I have witnessed the opening of one of the coffins … the mummy seems as if it was mummified yesterday,” al-Anani said, according to Aljazeera.

Other artifacts have been discovered as well, including a bronze figurine depicting Nefertem, an ancient god of the lotus blossom, as well as mummified animals like snakes, birds, scarab beetles. Dozens of statues were also found in the same area that the coffins were discovered.

It is suspected that the coffins belonged to high ranking figures in ancient Egyptian society, likely from the 26th dynasty.

The coffins will be taken to the Grand Egyptian Museum on the Giza Plateau, which is currently being built. The museum is expected to open soon, but the opening has already been delayed several times. At this point, the most recent opening date for the museum is planned for 2021.

The museum will feature an entire hall dedicated to the sarcophagi that were found in the region, and this hall will reportedly hold the new discoveries.

Saqqara, where the discovery was made features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, which is sometimes called the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastaba tombs.

Saqqara and the surrounding areas of Abusir and Dahshur suffered damage by looters during the 2011 Egyptian protests. Storerooms were broken into, but the monuments were mostly unharmed. A series of discoveries have been made at the site in recent years. Some findings have been dated back to as far as 4,000 years ago.




Rock Art Discovered Showing Humans Hunting with Dogs on Leashes 9,000 Years Ago

Credit: © Maria Guagnin et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology

By Alton Parrish | Ineffable Island

Dogs were the first animal to be domesticated and worked with hunters before the advent of farming. Dogs are descended from a grey wolf ancestor.

While conducting research in the Saudi Arabian desert, scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology uncovered significant evidence of early human settlement in the region. Over 1,400 images carved in the rock show people hunting with dogs. The researchers believe they are at least 8,000 to 9,000 years old.

Hunting scene with a lion and two dogs. A further five dogs are engraved behind the lion. The carvings were highlighted in white to make the images clearer.

Hunting scenes are depicted in some of the rock art. Men are shown with bows and arrows shooting at gazelles, antelopes, lions and leopards which are contained by dogs. Other images show how dogs hunt down small game, like gazelles and ibexes, by biting them. These findings enable the researchers to draw conclusions about the hunting methods of early settlers.
Historical sequence of images: pictures of cattle were added to an older depiction of dogs and hunters, partly covering it.

Credit: © Maria Guagnin et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 

Excavations prove that the region was settled 10,000 years ago. People began keeping livestock here some 7,000 to 8,000 years ago. The research team suspects that the hunting scenes predate that period which means they are more than 8,000 years old. It is believed that other rock art showing herds of cows were completed at a later date. As these images partly cover the hunting scenes and possess similar stylistic characteristics, the difference in age is probably not that great.

A recomposed image of a large hunting scene: The leashes, joining two of the dogs to the hunter on the right-hand side, are clearly recognizable.

Credit: © Maria Guagnin et al. / Journal of Anthropological Archaeology

It is notable that individual dogs are kept on leashes in the hunting scenes. Images of leashes had only previously been found in ancient Egyptian art which is much more recent. The hunters may have wanted to prevent valuable dogs particularly adept at picking up the scent of prey from getting injured during the hunt. Alternatively, they may have wished to keep the dogs close to them for their own protection. Another possibility is that they kept leashes on young dogs who they wanted to train to hunt.

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Secrets of Sonic Levitation Behind the Building of the Pyramids and Other Seeming Miracles

By Jill Mattson | * www.jillswingsoflight.com

Graham Hancock Pyramid

Ancient manuscripts describe sound levitating heavy objects, perhaps aiding in the building of huge pyramids and monuments. Ancient texts, all over the globe, describe sound as an effective method to move and alter dense physical matter.

According to ancient wisdom, the power of sound increased with large numbers of participants singing or playing musical instruments. Each individual accessed energy that originated from the heavens. Two singers together created more energy than each singing separately, as if their combined voices increased energy logarithmically. Heavenly energy from large choirs constantly sang to make a country potent, almost invincible.

Author Bruce Cathie described an eye witness account of many Tibetan monks moving huge boulders with their voices and musical instruments. The exact location of the singers and musicians was crucial for the “anti-gravity sonic effects” to work.[1] Various ancient writings describe directional sounds as a source of mechanical power, as if sound was squirted out of a water pistol: aim was important.[2]

A  German article, by Swedish engineer Olaf Alexanderson[3] described sonic levitation: ‘We know from the priests of the far east that they were able to lift heavy boulders up high mountains with the help of groups of various sounds… the knowledge of the various vibrations in the audio range demonstrates to a scientist of physics that a vibrating and condensed sound field can nullify the power of gravitation.” Observations[4] only 20 years ago in Tibet from a civil engineer, Henry Kjelson, reported that a Swedish doctor, Dr Jarl, made a journey to Tibet in 1939 to visit a high Lama. This lama let him observe sonic levitation of huge rocks up a cliff of about 250 meters.

The task was accomplished by mapping out exactly where singers and musicians stood. They angled their sound to go underneath a huge rock and up it went. Details are given in Bruce Cathie’s free book, Acoustic Levitation of Stones.[5] In another example, Edward Leedskalnin, a man with humble financial resources and a fourth grade education, built a monument to his lost love who canceled their wedding one day before the ceremony. In this area of Homestead Florida the coral can be up to 4,000 feet thick. Leedskalnin cut and moved huge blocks of coral himself with only hand tools, yet each section weighed more than 58 tons.[6] Leedskalnin left the castle as proof that he could move large stones without equipment.

Leedskalnin claimed he knew how the Egyptians built their pyramids. He built Coral Castle by reportedly “singing” to large stones to lift them. Leedskalin placed his hands over a stone to be levitated. He sung a scale until his hands felt a response from the stone. (Each tone was sustained to detect a subtle vibratory response.) The sound that produced the strongest vibration was sustained for quite some time to give the rock a powerful dosage and the rock levitated.

In a high tech example, high powered sound can suspend and move objects in air. Yoshili Hashimoto of Tokyo’s Kaijo Corporation developed an acoustic levitation machine. The sound vibrates 20,000 times per second to keep a small silicon wafer hovering one millimeter above a surface.  Acoustic levitation experiments have been conducted in space as the absence of gravity make better conditions to observe just the impact of sound.

The wonders of sound… we have not scratched the surface of what this energy source can do – if properly harnessed. The future science of sound and vibrational energy will “rock” our world.

*This article is printed in its entirety with the permission of the author and was originally entitled: “Secrets of Sonic Levitation”

Jill Mattson is an award-winning and prolific Artist, Musician and Author. Check out her , including free mp3’s, a newsletter, and her beautiful music and paintings. at www.jillswingsoflight.com

Sources:

[1] Cathie, Bruce, Acoustic Levitation of Stones: Monastery Construction, Tibetan Style. See Appendix B.

[2] Theosophists, Brown, Neate, D. Leslie, Seth, Tom

[3] Implosion No. 13

[4] The Lost Techniques by Henry Kjelson

[5] https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/antigravityworldgrid/ciencia_antigravityworldgrid08.htm

[6] www.coralcastle.com

Robert O'Leary 150x150Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products & modalities since the early 1970’s & he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist & father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive & safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield (MA), New England & “virtually” the world, with his website. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealthandbeauty@gmail.

 




Newly Discovered 1000-Year-Old Fortress Changes Everything We Thought We Knew About Vikings

 Brianna Acuesta | True Activist

It’s been 60 years since the last Viking fortress was found in Denmark, but, according to researchers, it has been well worth the wait based on their findings in the discovery of the most recent fortress on the island of Zealand. The first string of fortresses found in modern history occurred in the 1930s, when archaeologists found four perfectly circular structures that they couldn’t believe were built by the seemingly barbaric Vikings. Now that this new fortress has been uncovered, it opens up entire dialogues about what the warriors were really like.

Researchers have been searching for other fortresses for years, and it wasn’t until Søren Michael Sindbæk, a corresponding author on the newest study that gives a comprehensive look at the structure, came to the conclusion that there were missing fortresses. His conclusion and modern technology were able to uncover Borgring, which is the latest structure, based on patterns from the previous ones.

A combination of knowledge about the patterns of locations that these fortresses were built on, high-resolution LIDAR images, and persistence came together to aid the researchers. Sindbæk explained why it took so long to discover something that was apparently massive back in its heyday.

“The agricultural activity around it was extremely destructive. For hundreds of years throughout the Middle Ages, peasants ploughed and leveled the field. When we came, the fortress’s ramparts were less than half a meter above the average level of the field. You could walk the field, and I might have a hard time convincing you there was anything at all, but the LIDAR image was decisive,” he told Science.

Credit: Goodchild et al. 2017

The LIDAR image taken above the location tells a story about what lies just below the surface. The aerial, laser-based surveillance device creates a 3-D ground map, which illustrates the key components of what’s underneath the soil. It revealed that the fortress is 144 meters in diameter, is a perfect circle, and had four gates leading into the structure. Researchers stated that it would have taken a skilled land surveyor, extreme organization, and a demand for the perfect aesthetic to construct the perfect circle.

After discovering the fortress in 2014 through the images, the team went to work on conducting targeted small-scale excavations and testing samples of items they found. What they discovered added to their awe, as it was concluded that the fortress was built around 970 to 980 CE during the reign of Harald “Bluetooth” Gormsson. Though the previously-discovered fortresses appeared to be used for only two decades, this one was in use for a full generation longer than that and met with a violent end.

“We also found the fortress had been attacked, and two of the gates were burned severely…. Since this fortress is located where the Baltic Sea runs against the Danish coast, the most likely people to come from that sea would be Swedish Vikings,” Sindbæk said.

Credit: Museum of Southeast Denmark

According to Sindbæk, fortress life would have been quite peaceful because their sheer size would have deterred most of the enemies looking to get a foothold in the land. The fortresses were nearby routes that made accessibility to land and water routes very easy, so they were prepared at all times. Burial sites that had women and children in them as well as jewelry found within the fortresses indicates that the structures likely housed the families of Viking kings and higher up military officials.

This latest discovery has given so much insight into how the Vikings truly operated versus how archaeologists and historians previously saw them. This particular structure was built in the Trelleborg style, which is the first of this style to be discovered in more than 600 years.

Credit: Museum of Southeast Denmark

“These ring fortresses have been the biggest mystery in Viking archaeology since the 1930s. People couldn’t believe the Vikings in their own country built these structures. They thought foreign armies must have built them. But as we found more of these, we found it was indeed a Danish king and his Viking warriors, and for that reason they have been part of the most fundamental reassessment of what the Vikings were all about. They were warriors, obviously, but they were warriors out of a very organized society,” Sindbæk explained.

Researchers are certainly scrambling excitedly to determine just what these discoveries mean for their previous assumptions about this mysterious group of people and how their view of the culture might shift.

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New Mexico’s Chaco Canyon Petroglyph May Represent Ancient Total Eclipse

Chaco Canyon petroglyph may represent ancient total eclipse says CU professor

A petroglyph of what may be a total solar eclipse in the year 1097 as recorded by the Chaco Canyon, New Mexico Pueblo people. Credit: University of colorado

By Jim Scott | Phys.org

As the hullabaloo surrounding the Aug. 21 total eclipse of the sun swells by the day, a University of Colorado Boulder faculty member says a petroglyph in New Mexico’s Chaco Canyon may represent a total eclipse that occurred there a thousand years ago.

CU Boulder Professor Emeritus J. McKim “Kim” Malville said the petroglyph—carved in a rock by early Pueblo people—is a circle that resembles the sun’s outer atmosphere known as its corona, with tangled protrusions looping off the edges. Discovered in 1992 during a Chaco Canyon field school for CU Boulder and Fort Lewis College students led by Malville and then-Fort Lewis Professor James Judge, the object may illustrate the  of the sun that occurred over the region on July 11, 1097.

“To me it looks like a circular feature with curved tangles and structures,” said Malville of CU Boulder’s astrophysical and planetary sciences department. “If one looks at a drawing by a German astronomer of the 1860  during high solar activity, rays and loops similar to those depicted in the Chaco petroglyph are visible.”

One tangled loop jutting from the petroglyph circle may illustrate a coronal mass ejection (CME), an eruption that can blow billions of tons of plasma from the sun at several million miles per hour during active solar maximum periods. But if the sun was in a “quiet phase” of its roughly 11-year cycle, one would expect few if any CMEs, and the likelihood of one occurring during a solar eclipse would be negligible, Malville said.

Chaco Canyon petroglyph may represent ancient total eclipse

Piedra del Sol petroglyph. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

“This was a testable hypothesis,” Malville said. “It turns out the sun was in a period of very high solar activity at that time, consistent with an active corona and CMEs.” Malville and Professor José Vaquero of the University of Extremadura in Cáceres, Spain, published a paper on the petroglyph in the Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry in 2014. Chaco Canyon, the zenith of Pueblo culture in the Southwest a thousand years ago, is believed by archeologists to have been populated by several thousand people and held political sway over an area twice the size of Ohio.

The two used several sources to assess the activity of the sun around the time of the 1097 eclipse. That included data from ancient tree rings, formed annually and which have been cross-dated to create time series going back thousands of years and which also contain traces of the isotope carbon-14. Created by cosmic rays hitting Earth’s atmosphere, carbon-14 amounts in the tree rings can be correlated with sunspots—the less carbon-14, the more sunspots, which indicates higher solar activity, Malville said. They also used records of naked-eye observations of sunspots, which go back several thousand years in China. A third method involved looking at historical data compiled by northern Europeans on the annual number of so-called “auroral nights,” when the northern lights were visible, an indication of intense .

The free-standing rock hosting the possible eclipse petroglyph, known as Piedra del Sol, also has a large spiral petroglyph on its east side that marks sunrise 15 to 17 days before the June solstice, Malville said. A triangular shadow cast by a large rock on the horizon crosses the center of the spiral at that time. Such a phenomenon may have been used to start a countdown to the summer solstice and related festivities, he said.

In addition to the spiral petroglyph, the east side of Piedra del Sol contains a bowl-shaped depression where Chacoans likely left offerings like cornmeal. The southwest side of the rock faces a small butte on the horizon that marks the December solstice event, and the rock also has carved steps, indicating it likely had some kind of a ceremonial importance, he said.

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Stunning Archaeological Find: Ancient Stone Carvings Say a Comet Struck Earth In 10,950BC, All But Wiping Out the Human Race – Vindicating Graham Hancock

Maverick archaeologist Graham Hancock insists that a highly evolved human civilisation was wiped out by a global catastrophe around 13,000 years ago

By Christopher Stevens | Daily Mail

Suppose all the wildest theories and historical conspiracies of novelist Dan Brown were proven true. And the mind-reading, spoon-bending claims of Israeli psychic Uri Geller all turned out to be real as well.

That wouldn’t be half as extraordinary as the announcement in an obscure scientific journal this month that vindicated 20 years of maverick research and best-selling books by the eccentric archaeologist Graham Hancock.

His insistence that a highly evolved human civilisation was wiped out by a global catastrophe, remembered now only in myths and Biblical accounts such as the story of Noah and The Flood, has been mocked and dismissed by mainstream experts since he first spoke out in the mid-Nineties.

His latest book, Magicians Of The Gods, presented findings from all over the world as he argued that a mini Ice Age had swept the planet around 13,000 years ago, following a comet strike that caused devastating earthquakes and tsunamis.

Some of his most convincing, if rather arcane, evidence was discovered at a dig in Turkey known as Gobekli Tepe — which literally means Potbelly Hill. At this site close to the Syrian border, said Hancock, was found the most ancient work of monumental architecture on Earth.

Twice as old as Stonehenge, its engineering was far more skilled. Astronomical carvings and inscriptions on the stones served as aids for prehistoric stargazers, but also told stories. And one was of a comet that fell from the heavens, all but wiping out the human race.

Despite the painstaking construction of the book, which argues each point exhaustively, Hancock was met with the usual hoots of derision when Magicians Of The Gods appeared in 2015.

His latest book, Magicians Of The Gods, presented findings from all over the world as he argued that a mini Ice Age had swept the planet around 13,000 years ago, following a comet strike that caused devastating earthquakes and tsunamis

His latest book, Magicians Of The Gods, presented findings from all over the world as he argued that a mini Ice Age had swept the planet around 13,000 years ago, following a comet strike that caused devastating earthquakes and tsunamis

He was derided as a fantasist, a deluded amateur, and much merriment was poked at his long-held belief that hallucinogenic drugs are intellectual stimulants. This nonsense was archaeology for trippy hippies, laughed Hancock’s detractors.

So when research appeared last week that vindicated many of his claims and proved that this lone voice had been right for 20 years, perhaps it isn’t surprising that the announcement was as low-key as humanly possible. The carvings at Gobekli Tepe do indeed describe a comet strike, in 10,950BC, said some staid and very serious experts from the University of Edinburgh’s School of Engineering. Their report appeared as a paper in the little-known International Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, published by the University of the Aegean.

But the obscurity of the source cannot mask the scale of the scientific back-tracking. Hancock’s claims sound like a Hollywood disaster movie, a sci-fi epic and a detective thriller all rolled into one. His theories encompass the meaning of the pyramids and the future destruction of the planet.

If more conventional archaeologists are going to start agreeing with him, that amounts to a seismic shift of direction.

As the Telegraph newspaper report into the new scientific findings noted: ‘The idea had been originally put forward by author Graham Hancock in his book Magicians Of The Gods.’

What hasn’t changed is the starting point for all these theories. Just after 11,000BC, experts have long agreed, when the Earth was gradually emerging from the last Ice Age, a cataclysmic event caused sudden, shocking climate change. This ushered in a big chill known as the Younger Dryas, which lasted about 1,500 years.

Scientists had numerous theories to explain this but, in Magicians Of The Gods, Hancock argued that we had all the proof we needed: more than 200 ancient myths, belonging to tribes from the Arctic to the Equator, telling of an advanced human civilisation destroyed by flood and fire.

Added to this was compelling physical evidence, in the form of giant boulders, platinum deposits and tiny diamonds found across North America — the detritus of a colossal impact.

There was only one explanation, said Hancock, and it matched the account carved into the limestone pillars at Gobekli Tepe . . . an account now verified by the team at Edinburgh University.

Our planet was hit by a comet. A blazing asteroid plunged out of the firmament and struck with the force of several thousand nuclear bombs bursting simultaneously. It wiped out many larger animal species, including the woolly mammoth and the sloth bear, and it almost destroyed humanity. Some people did survive, including the ancestors of the Ojibwa tribe of the Canadian grasslands, who still tell the story of the Long-Tailed Heavenly Climbing Star which swept out of the sky to scorch the earth. Their myths relate that it left behind ‘a different world.

After that, survival was hard work. The weather was colder than before’.

As Edinburgh’s Dr Martin Sweatman puts it: ‘One of the pillars at Gobekli Tepe seems to have served as a memorial to this devastating event — probably the worst day in history since the end of the Ice Age.’

Part of the Gobekli carving shows a headless man, a graphic symbol of human carnage.

Some of his most convincing, if rather arcane, evidence was discovered at a dig in Turkey known as Gobekli Tepe — which literally means Potbelly Hill. At this site close to the Syrian border, said Hancock, was found the most ancient work of monumental architecture on Earth

Some of his most convincing, if rather arcane, evidence was discovered at a dig in Turkey known as Gobekli Tepe — which literally means Potbelly Hill. At this site close to the Syrian border, said Hancock, was found the most ancient work of monumental architecture on Earth

The key finding was a series of animal carvings on a pillar known as the Vulture Stone, which represent constellations of stars as well as the comet itself. The stars were not represented as we would see them in the sky today, but as they were in 10,950BC — enabling the scientists to point with certainty to the date of the comet strike.

This means that when the Gobekli stones were made, around 9,000BC (that is, approximately 11,000 years ago), the sculptors had the astronomical know-how to backdate the constellations, shifting their pattern by a couple of millennia. And they were working with information that had been passed down over 2,000 years.

That shows spectacular sophistication. Yet according to common wisdom, humans were savages at this time, hunter-gatherers no more advanced than cavemen, without any knowledge of engineering or mathematics.

Most archaeologists struggle to explain how such a primitive culture could have built Gobekli Tepe. Now that the notion of a comet strike is beyond dispute, the thinking is that abundant wild crops of wheat and barley were wiped out by plunging temperatures.

Nomadic tribes were forced to combine, sharing their knowledge and co-operating to survive as they developed techniques to grow enough food to survive.

 

But as Hancock points out, this would have been an all-consuming challenge for people used to living in small, roaming groups. The switch from hunting to agriculture, and from mobile tent villages to settlements, would demand every ounce of energy, diplomacy and ingenuity our ancestors could muster.

How would they find the time to invent complex maths, plot the heavens, master architecture and learn intricate stone-working? All those skills and more were needed to build Gobekli Tepe.

Stonehenge, which was built around 5,000 years ago, consists of rough-hewn slabs. It is ingenious, but compared to Gobekli Tepe it’s like a parish church beside Chartres Cathedral.

For 20 years, Hancock has insisted that there is only one explanation for this explosive intellectual evolution. All that knowledge already existed. Earlier investigators, such as the Swiss author Erich von Daniken, proposed that Earth was visited by extra-terrestrial pioneers, aliens who brought intergalactic gifts of technology. Hancock’s theory is much more plausible: he believes a human civilisation predated the comet strike, one at least as advanced as the Romans.

We don’t know what language they spoke, nor how they recorded their knowledge. But unless a band of refugee hunters in Turkey 11,000 years ago suddenly cracked every major branch of human learning, all at the same time, that elder civilisation must have existed.

Sci-fi author Arthur C. Clarke famously said that, ‘any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic’. And the knowledge that survivors of the comet possessed must have seemed like pure sorcery to the ordinary nomad.

Perhaps that’s why, even now, we humans have an instinctive urge to believe in magic and feel sure it must have existed during some golden age — because to our ancient forebears, magic was a very real phenomenon.

The possessors of that inexplicable power, the ones Hancock calls the Magicians Of The Gods, must have worked out how to share their knowledge without giving away their tricks.

For 20 years, Hancock has insisted that there is only one explanation for this explosive intellectual evolution. All that knowledge already existed. Earlier investigators, such as the Swiss author Erich von Daniken, proposed that Earth was visited by extra-terrestrial pioneers, aliens who brought intergalactic gifts of technology

For 20 years, Hancock has insisted that there is only one explanation for this explosive intellectual evolution. All that knowledge already existed. Earlier investigators, such as the Swiss author Erich von Daniken, proposed that Earth was visited by extra-terrestrial pioneers, aliens who brought intergalactic gifts of technology

Post-apocalypse, they would have been fighting to survive in a very dangerous world. It seems likely that they posed as wizards, using showmanship to heighten the impact of their secrets. Carvings discovered at sites as far-flung as Bolivia, Mexico, Turkey and Iraq depict human figures in fish-like robes, wearing garments patterned with scales.

The mythical Oannes of Mesopotamia, for instance, had ‘the whole body of a fish, but underneath the head of the fish there was another head, a human one. It had a human voice.’

Oannes was accompanied by seven sages, who taught chemistry, medicine, stone-cutting and metal-working.

At the Temple of Horus in the Egyptian city of Edfu, ancient inscriptions also tell of seven sages. They were the last survivors of a sacred place, ‘the mansions of the gods’, whose home world had been destroyed by flood and fire. These sages had escaped death only because they were at sea when the catastrophe struck.

According to Arab traditions, the wisdom of these sages was stored in the pyramids of Giza, built to be a library for their books of knowledge. These included technologies that sound modern even to our ears: ‘[Military] Arms which did not rust, and glass which might be bent but not broken.’

All of this, the ideas that Hancock has been popularising since he published Fingerprints Of The Gods in 1996, has always seemed improbable to the conventional scientific community, which tended to dismiss his claims en masse.

With the discovery that the cornerstone of his theories was right, his other speculation is suddenly much less far-fetched.

But there is one aspect of his studies that is still too controversial to be given credence by mainstream scholars. And if he’s right about it, nothing else matters. The comet, the magicians, the messages across the millennia will all be irrelevant.

READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE…




It Looks Like A Rabbit Hole, But What The Tunnel Leads To Blew My Mind…

Credit: Michael Scott

By Amanda Froelich | True Activist

Don’t be fooled by what appears to be an ordinary rabbit hole peeking out the side of a hill in Shropshire, England. Seemingly innocent, the small opening is actually an entrance to The Caynton Caves, a 700-year-old underground hideout. And, like any cave system, there’s an extraordinary history attached to the wonder…

Metro reports that the ancient space once belonged to The Knights Templar, a feared Catholic military order, the derived its power and wealth by fighting in the Crusades. As time passed, the underground system was eventually utilized by druids, pagans, and other secretive religious sects.

In 2012, the owners of the property blocked off the space due to being annoyed by the constant flow of visitors. Fortunately, Birmingham-based photographer Michael Scott was afforded the opportunity to walk the tunnels and document the mythical pace. The 33-year-old artist commented:

“I traipsed over a field to find it, but if you didn’t know it was there you would just walk right past it. It’s probably less than a metre underground, so it’s more into the field than under it.”

“Considering how long it’s been there it’s in amazing condition, it’s like an underground temple,” he added.

What looks to be a rabbit hole is actually an entrance to a cave network…

Credit: Michael Scott

The Caynton Caves once belonged to the Knights Templar…

Credit: Michael Scott

…and are over 700 years old!

Credit: Michael Scott

The Knights Templar was a feared Catholic military order that built its power and wealth by fighting in the Crusades.

Credit: Michael Scott

Later, pagans and druids took over the cave system to practice their religious beliefs.

Credit: Michael Scott

Though the network was closed to the public in 2012, photographer Michael Scott was allowed to enter…

Credit: Michael Scott

…and he documented the space for all to see!

Credit: Michael Scott

“If you didn’t know it was there you would just walk right past it,” Michael said.

“It’s probably less than a metre underground, so it’s more into the field than under it.”

Credit: Michael Scott

“Considering how long it’s been there it’s in amazing condition, it’s like an underground temple.”

Credit: Michael Scott

Take a journey through the caves by watching the following video:

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Weird Life Form Found Trapped Inside Huge Underground Crystals

Alexa Erickson | Collective-Evolution

Trapped inside massive crystals deep in a Mexican cave, creatures have been discovered that subsist on iron, sulfur, and other chemicals. The researchers say the microbial lifeforms are new to science but have been tucked away for tens of thousands of years.

Should the discovery be verified, it will add to evidence that “microbial life on Earth can endure harsher conditions in isolated places than scientists previously thought possible.”

“These organisms have been dormant but viable for geologically significant periods of time, and they can be released due to other geological processes,” explains NASA Astrobiology Institute director Penelope Boston.“This has profound effects on how we try to understand the evolutionary history of microbial life on this planet.”

However, such a discovery does raise concerns about our search for life beyond this planet, despite the rigorous sterilization spacecraft undergo before a mission. “How do we ensure that life-detection missions are going to detect true Mars life or life from icy worlds rather than our life?” Boston questions. “Aspects of my work illustrate the extreme toughness of life on Earth and the restrictions that places on us.”

PHOTOGRAPH BY CARSTEN PETER, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE

PHOTOGRAPH BY CARSTEN PETER, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE

PHOTOGRAPH BY CARSTEN PETER, SPELEORESEARCH & FILMS, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE

The microbes were found inside the Cave of Crystals, which is part of the Naica mine in the northern state of Chihuahua. Upon hauling up lead and silver, which involved pumping groundwater out of the expansive underground caverns, a labyrinth of milky-white crystals  — some more than 30 feet long — were stumbled upon.

Boston was able to take samples from pockets of fluid trapped inside the crystals back in 2008 and 2009. Her team then woke the dormant microbes up in that fluid and grew cultures. It is thought that the organisms they now have growing in the lab are between 10,000 and 50,000 years old.

Though the work hasn’t gone through the peer-review process yet, which makes it difficult for other experts to weigh in on the findings, Brent Christner, a microbiologist at the University of Florida in Gainesville, says that “reviving microbes from samples of 10,000 to 50,000 years is not that outlandish based on previous reports of microbial resuscitations in geological materials hundreds of thousands to millions of years old.”

Read the rest of the article.




Treasure Hunter Found Over $400 Million in Artifacts and Donated Them ALL to Museums

By Samantha Tapp | The Plaid Zebra

If you found a piece of treasure worth a few thousand dollars would you sell it or would you preserve it and donate it to a museum as a piece of history? One part of me is saying donate; it is a piece of history and it has cultural significance, it should be shared with the world. A bigger part of me is thinking about my student loans, my credit card debt and paying rent and is already driving me to the nearest pawn shop. What if the treasure was worth millions, $400 million to be exact. Game over, consider it sold and catch me on an island.

But for Barry Clifford, finding treasure is not about the money, it’s actually about preserving pieces of history. For the past 30 years, Barry has been exploring. He is an underwater archeologist, but in other words, he is a treasure hunter. He has dedicated his entire adult life to finding and preserving shipwrecked treasure.

And apparently he’s a better person than I, as he has never sold a single artifact he has found, choosing instead to preserve them and put them on display in a museum. This is a big accomplishment because he and his team have found hundreds of thousands of artifacts.

“The artifacts speak louder than words, the way that we’ve preserved them,” he said in a Great Big Story documentary. “It’s not what we said, it’s what we did, and they’Il speak very loudly for generations and generations to come.”

photo6

Arguably, his biggest discovery was The Whydah, a one-time slave vessel wrecked off Wellfleet, Massachusetts in 1717, and also the only verified pirate shipwreck ever found in U.S. waters. According to the National Geographic, in 1984, Barry and his team found more than 100,000 artifacts including the Whydah’s bell, cannon, gold, silver coins, African jewelry, weapons, and many other artifacts. The value is estimated at more than $400 million.

photo1

Barry and his team have gotten the technical side of treasure hunting down to an art. Since artifacts are buried at least 15-30 feet under the sand, they have to dig a hole around 30 feet deep to get to the artifact layer. They have to precisely position equipment and anchoring technique as to not destroy or disrupt the artifacts.

Since the Whydah discovery, he has searched Boston Harbor for ships and artifacts from the Boston Tea Party and the Revolutionary War, and is currently working to discover the remains of Columbus’ ‘Santa Maria.’ Over the years his work has been controversial, with some artifacts not holding up as legitimate pieces from a ship wreck when examined by scientists. But this doesn’t stop Barry and his team from roaming the waters, looking for the next piece of history.

photo3

After finding the treasure, it takes years and years to conserve everything properly. But it’s worth the wait. He said when he began this work he promised himself that he was never going to sell anything, but instead would keep it all together. His team and family all agree with preserving the artifacts for cultural heritage.

“I still get just as excited about finding something as I did 35 years go,” Barry said.

treasure5

TO SEE MORE PHOTOS OF INCRECIBLE ARTIFACTS FOUND, GO HERE…




Feathered Tail of 99-MILLION-Year-Old Dinosaur Found in Amber (First of Its Kind!)

© R.C. Mckellar/Royal Saskatchewan Museum

By Melissa Breyer | Treehugger

For the first time ever, a dinosaur tail has been found in amber … and better yet, it has fabulous feathers.

We don’t have photos of life on Earth 99 million years ago. We don’t have a time machine and we don’t have living dinosaurs to give us a clear picture of their many wonders. What we do have are fossils and amber to tell their stories – and considering the recent discovery of a section of dinosaur tail in a piece of amber, the stories they have are remarkable. Kristin Romey writes in National Geographic:

While individual dinosaur-era feathers have been found in amber, and evidence for feathered dinosaurs is captured in fossil impressions, this is the first time that scientists are able to clearly associate well-preserved feathers with a dinosaur, and in turn gain a better understanding of the evolution and structure of dinosaur feathers.

For the first time ever, a dinosaur tail has been found in amber … and better yet, it has fabulous feathers.

We don’t have photos of life on Earth 99 million years ago. We don’t have a time machine and we don’t have living dinosaurs to give us a clear picture of their many wonders. What we do have are fossils and amber to tell their stories – and considering the recent discovery of a section of dinosaur tail in a piece of amber, the stories they have are remarkable. Kristin Romey writes in National Geographic:

While individual dinosaur-era feathers have been found in amber, and evidence for feathered dinosaurs is captured in fossil impressions, this is the first time that scientists are able to clearly associate well-preserved feathers with a dinosaur, and in turn gain a better understanding of the evolution and structure of dinosaur feathers.

The stunning find was discovered in a Myanmar amber market by paleontologist Lida Xing of the China University of Geosciences, who headed the research. The sample (formally called DIP-V-15103 and given the pet name “Eva”) came from a mine in northern Myanmar. Romey reports that amber from this region most likely contains the world’s largest variety of animal and plant life from the Cretaceous period.

Dinosaur tail

© R.C. Mckellar, Royal Saskatchewan Museum

Eva is described as a semi-translucent mid-Cretaceous piece of amber, comparable in size and shape to a dried apricot. Captured within is the section of tail, a 1.4-inch appendage covered in feathers of white and chestnut brown.

Since most amber from the area is destined to become jewelry, Eva had already been shaped before the researchers found it. (Can you imagine being the person to have done that? Fortunately, the shaping provided a decent cross-section for analyses.)

Along with feathers and soft tissue, the wee bit of tail includes eight vertebrae from the middle or end of a long, thin appendage that could have been comprised of up to more than 25 vertebrae. The researchers think it may have belonged to a young coelurosaur.

dinosaur tail

© R.C. Mckellar/Royal Saskatchewan Museum

The study detailing the find has been published in the journal Current Biology, and explains that if the entire tail had been covered in similar feathers, its owner would have likely been unable to fly – suggesting that the feathers were intended for signaling or temperature regulation.

The analyses also revealed ferrous iron in the sample, a byproduct from the blood hemoglobin that was once present in the soft tissue.

READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE…




Centuries-old Spanish Fort Found Under South Carolina Golf Course

By Alan Yuhas | The Guardian

SpanishFort-CastillodeSanMarcosinFlorida-680x380

Archaeologists announced on Tuesday that they have found the Spanish fort of San Marcos on Parris Island, South Carolina, at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot

They arrived with cannons and guns, and quickly built a fort on the coast of this vast, uncharted territory to ward off native people and French settlers. But after 21 years, Spain’s northernmost settlement on the east coast of North America was abandoned , and stood hidden for the next four centuries.

Archaeologists announced on Tuesday that they have found the Spanish fort of San Marcos on Parris Island, South Carolina, under what is now a golf course at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot.

Santa Elena was founded in 1566 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, the conquistador who earned himself the title of Florida’s governor the year before, when he founded the settlement of St Augustine. Menéndez carried the brutal politics of Europe to the Americas: that same year he ordered the massacre of more than 200 French settlers who would not renounce their Protestant sect for Catholicism.

Leery of French ambitions on the coast, he founded Santa Elena to the north – near an abandoned settlement of French Huguenots who had mutinied a few years earlier. The Spanish also struggled with food shortages and disease, and had hostile relations with the local Orista and Guale people. By 1576 the tribes managed to sack the town and force the Spanish out completely, only for the conquistadors to return the next year with new settlers, soldiers and material for a new fort of San Marcos.

Archaeologists have now been able to map the site for the first time, in research to be published this week in the Journal of Archaeology Science Reports.

[Read more here]

Robert O'Leary 150x150

Robert O’Leary, JD BARA, has had an abiding interest in alternative health products & modalities since the early 1970’s & he has seen how they have made people go from lacking health to vibrant health. He became an attorney, singer-songwriter, martial artist & father along the way and brings that experience to his practice as a BioAcoustic Soundhealth Practitioner, under the tutelage of the award-winning founder of BioAcoustic Biology, Sharry Edwards, whose Institute of BioAcoustic Biology has now been serving clients for 30 years with a non-invasive & safe integrative modality that supports the body’s ability to self-heal using the power of the human voice. Robert brings this modality to serve clients in Greater Springfield (MA), New England & “virtually” the world, with his website. He can also be reached at romayasoundhealthandbeauty@gmail.

 




Andes Ancient Sacred Sites Alignment – Lost Global High Culture?

way of varicochaGCN

By Dave Truman | GrahamHancock.com

In the 1970s the Dutch-Peruvian mathematician, Maria Sholten D’Ebneth wrote a book in which she claimed to have discovered, or rediscovered, an alignment of pre-Columbian sacred sites stretching from the ancient city of Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) in Bolivia to north of the city of Cajamarca in northern Peru. The alignment appeared to be on a celestial scale and covered a distance of around 1,000 miles (1,600 km), cutting across some of the highest mountains and steepest gradients in the entire world. The mathematician found that the alignment had a precise orientation of exactly 45° west from True North, following the twin parallel lines of the Andean peaks that lie to the north of the 18th parallel.

Published only in Spanish, and now out of print even in that language, Sholten D’Ebneth’s, La Ruta de Wiracocha (The Way of Viracocha)icontains a wealth of information hardly known to the English-speaking world. The alignment’s association with Viracocha, the great Andean creator god, teacher and civiliser of humankind, is a highly significant one. Many legends concerning the feats of Viracocha speak of his undertaking a journey, from the city of Tiwanaku towards the Northwest, eventually to leave the shores of South America’s Pacific coast around the present day border between Peru and Ecuador. Viracocha’s legendary journey, Sholten D’Ebneth revealed, corresponded with her own geometrical discovery of the alignment of many of the most ancient and sacred sites in the Andes, including the famous ones at Cusco (Cuzco), Ollantaytambo and, of course, the great and mysterious complex of Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco).

Related Article: The Lore and Lure of Ley Lines

Andean landscape and geometry

The many megalithic sites along the Way of Viracocha have long given rise to theories and speculations about who built them and to controversies about when they were built. At this juncture, it is perhaps worth pondering the sheer technical challenge of surveying this vast alignment across some of the most rugged, remote and mountainous terrain on earth. Indeed, my own research and that of others, indicate that the alignment could extend beyond Tiwanaku.

When I plotted the Route of Viracocha, I had the benefit of using software such as Google Earth® and Marble. These programs enabled me to employ a spherical projection of the whole globe, rather than the “flat” Mercator Projection apparently used in previous decades. As we will see later, using this map projection yielded rather different results from those of some earlier researchers. This became evident when I extended Sholten D’Ebneth’s alignment beyond Tiwanaku towards the Southeast. If my findings are correct, it implies that whoever surveyed the Way of Viracocha, not only had an understanding of the earth’s curvature, but also understood the principles of spherical trigonometry.iiIt is equally likely that those who undertook this work knew the dimensions of the Earth. The question then arose in my mind: could it be that Viracocha, the great teacher and restorer of civilisation in the Andes, in some way embodied the scientific knowledge of a sophisticated, but long forgotten high culture?

Some geological considerations

Another curiosity struck me as I pondered various maps of South America. The very topography of the Andes seems to coincide with the 45° geometry of Sholten D’Ebneth’s rediscovery. It is almost as if whoever first conceived of the alignment had wanted to emphasise the 45° NW orientation of the stupendous panorama of summits and high plateaux that lie to the north of the Andean 18th parallel. At the southern end of the great alignment, the direction of the two chains of rugged peaks changes dramatically. This is the Andes’ widest point and, from following a diagonal from northwest to southeast, the mountains veer sharply due south. This latitude – almost exactly 18° south of the Equator – marks the northernmost edge of what is known as El Cono Sur; South America’s great continental cone that tapers southwards towards Antarctica.

South of the 18° latitude the chemical composition of the high plateau, or altiplano separating the parallel chains of mountains, is extremely salty. Southern Bolivia’s mountain plateau is speckled with saline lakes and salt flats that stretch down as far as the provinces of Salta and Córdoba in northern Argentina. They are the lingering and still evaporating vestiges of the vast Lake Tauca that had once covered the entire length of the Andean plateau at the end of the last Ice Age. Geological convention has it that the lakes and salt flats are simply the remnants of glaciers that melted gradually in the transition to our modern era, known to geologists as the Holocene. However, glacier melt-water alone cannot explain the presence of such high levels of salt on the altiplano’s southernmost reaches.

The marked differences in the concentrations of salt present in the various pockets of water on the Andes also interested the great Austrian-Bolivian researcher Arthur Posnansky. He spent almost fifty years systematically studying the geology and archaeology of Tiwanaku and its surrounding landscape. He took samples from numerous lakes on the altiplano and compared them with the waters trapped in the lakes of the high peaks, or Cordilleras, running along either side. Curiously, he found that the water from lakes in the higher mountains generally contained relatively little salt, whereas many of those from the Altiplano below had much higher concentrations. Posnansky came to the view that there had been several floods at the end of the last Ice Age in the Andes. Perhaps most significantly, he concluded that the earlier inundations had been of seawater; followed later by fresh water floods when the glaciers melted some time afterwards.iii

As we shall see later, further clues as to what really happened at the end of the last Ice Age may be found in the legends of the Aymará people living in the remote villages dotted around the southern altiplano in the Bolivian province of OruroOf course, in order to accept these legends as evidence, we must first accept that there has been some degree of cultural continuity between some 12,800 years ago and the present time. Intriguingly, some Aymará legends tell of a far more catastrophic and complex sequence of events in those remote times than the slow and steady melting of glaciers. A deeper understanding of such legends could help us to fathom why there is just so much salt present on one of the world’s highest mountain plateaux, at around two and a half miles (4 kilometres) above the level of the neighbouring Pacific Ocean.

Photograph of one of Posnansky's excavations at the Kalasasaya, Tiwanaku. Although there is a retaining wall between the megaliths, its height reaches only to the level of the ground. Note also the regular and shallow indentations on the side of the nearest megalith, which may indicate the use of a stone-softening technology.Photograph of one of Posnansky’s excavations at the Kalasasaya, Tiwanaku. Although there is a retaining wall between the megaliths, its height reaches only to the level of the ground. Note also the regular and shallow indentations on the side of the nearest megalith, which may indicate the use of a stone-softening technology.

Modern reconstruction of part of the Kalasasaya, with its retaining wall almost equal to the height of the megalith. Note the tenon at the top of the megalith; similar features are present on most of the others. Do these indicate that the Kalasasaya's megaliths once supported another structure, perhaps a roof?Modern reconstruction of part of the Kalasasaya, with its retaining wall almost equal to the height of the megalith. Note the tenon at the top of the megalith; similar features are present on most of the others. Do these indicate that the Kalasasaya’s megaliths once supported another structure, perhaps a roof?

The minds of Ice Age people: “primitive,” or just very different from our own?

Related Article: Houston Anthropologist Reveals Irrefutable Proof that Recorded History Is Wrong

The possibility that people in the Andes as far back as the last Ice Age were skilled in surveying, knew the dimensions of the Earth and could employ spherical trigonometry is intriguing enough in itself. For me, it raises questions as to whether humanity’s existence in the Pleistocene (Ice Age) really did consist exclusively of small very isolated bands of hunter-gatherers who were clinging on for dear life against all odds, and who developed sophisticated achievements only after the slow and steady transition to warmer times. The standard view of human endeavours in this period allows no time or inclination on the part of our ancestors to cultivate what we may now think of as higher learning. Still less does it admit to the possibility that people could travel long distances around the world, conceive of complex ideas collectively, or undertake projects on a vast scale. What if life in most of the last Ice Age, at least for some people, was very different from what we’ve been led to think? There is now mounting geological evidence of two catastrophic punctuations at the very end of the last period glaciation. These were on such a scale that they could quite easily have obliterated most of any human achievements that may have existed prior to their impact.

Yet the question remained as to why anyone should even want to exert so much effort and energy in constructing megalithic sites that aligned over such a vast distance. If this was higher learning, it was not produced by anything like our modern western education system – that is for certain. I am starting to realise that we in the modern West invariably stick our own cultural labels of “religion,” “progress,” “function,” “survival” or of whatever else on to the remnants of the past in order to fashion ancient peoples into our own image. We have almost no idea if our Pleistocene ancestors thought the way we do, but we readily assume this to be the case. I started to realise just how much their minds may have been different from ours when I considered the geometry of the Way of Viracocha. What is distinct about this great alignment is that its features correspond, geometrically speaking, to those of its mountainous environment. Equally, as we have just seen, it displays a close relationship to the orientation of the Andes lying to the north of the 18th parallel.

I found another clue to this different mode of thinking when I noticed how the Milky Way seems to shift its position across the sky throughout the Andean year from our earthly perspective. Put simply, the great celestial river is not fixed rigidly in the heavens; its angle and position appear to change, as and when the Earth’s seasons down below do. In the season culminating in the December southern summer solstice, the Galaxy traces the exact same NW-SE path through the heavens as does the Way of Viracocha and, of course, as do the Andes. Without doubt, the December solstice was an important time in the high mountains and plateaux, marking as it did – and still does – the cardinal point of the rainy season. This was so necessary for the growth of crops and the stimulation of new life. We would be mistaken, however, if we confined our thoughts about this deliberate synchronisation of Heaven and Earth to agriculture alone. The sheer effort involved in constructing the Way of Viracocha, which must have been undertaken over many years, argues strongly against this. At this stage in my investigation, I needed to keep in mind questions as to why these people should have made all of this effort, as much as to how they had set about the task.

It seemed that the Hermetic dictum of As Above, So Below applied equally to the world-view of those who conceived of this great enterprise as it did in Egypt, Arizona, Southeast Asia, or in a plethora of other places across the world. There are, in fact, tangible relics that attest to the ancient Andean shaman-astronomers’ profound understanding of the symmetry of Heaven and Earth, but they are rarely recognised as such by the adherents of conventional archaeology. The builders of ancient Tiwanaku employed an architectural convention known as anticefalo(literally “head against head”). You would be hard put to find examples of this if you visit its ruins today, but specimens do exist in the Archaeological Museum in the city of La Paz. Anticefalos usually depict a stylised relief carving of a human form on the bottom part of a stone column. Immediately above this is carved an identical figure, but inverted. The net result is a kind of mirror image of the human form, so that the tops of the heads of the two figures create the meeting point between them. The standard archaeological interpretation is that this is merely a stylistic device, but I think that it encodes a profound metaphysical principle.

Related Article: Some Bizarre Facts — Fifth Excerpt From The Great Pyramid’s Blessed Curse

Posnansky's photograph of a damaged column showing the anticefalo motif.Posnansky’s photograph of a damaged column showing the anticefalo motif.

Other physical relics of this ancient appreciation of the symmetry of Heaven and Earth are what I call watery star-mirrors, for want of a better term, which were used from the very earliest of times. They consisted of holes, or receptacles, that were filled with water to create a mirror image of the heavens on the water’s surface. If you are lucky enough to visit an archaeological site in the Andes possessing any of these, your tour guide will probably tell you that they were used by the ancient peoples to gaze at the stars. He or she will then promptly usher you on to look at something else. The guide’s explanation, although technically accurate, is hardly adequate and makes little sense without any cultural or functional context. In the view of the Peruvian architect and archaeo-astronomer, Carlos Millena Villena, aquatic star-mirrors were devices that enabled the Andean knowledge-keepers, known as amautas, to construct temples, geoglyphs and other sacred places in the most auspicious locations, through replicating on the earth’s surface the geometry of particular asterisms.iv They also seem to have been a technology of time as much as of astro-terrestrial geometry in that the mirrors were located facing upwards in such a way as to reflect the light of particular stars, such as Sirius, Alcyon, or the Sun, on significant dates.v

By far, most of the vast complex of Tiwanaku, which includes ruins beneath present-day Lake Titikaka – more than 12 miles (20km) from the restored part of the Metropolis – has yet to be excavated (in the 1980s, an aerial survey estimated that the ruins of the complex not currently beneath the waters of the Lake covered some 1,038 acres, or 420 hectares).vi Tiwanaku’s most recent excavations, in the little-known area called the Kantatallita, have revealed a number of immense stone slabs that look to have been cut precisely by machine tools. The workings on the face of the slabs include an array of several round and rectangular shaped recesses, which probably functioned as star-mirrors. There is no doubt that in later times the Incas used star-mirrors, but the technology was certainly employed by much earlier Andean cultures, including the unknown one that occupied the very ancient site of Pukara Grande in southern Bolivia, which features towards the end of this article.

Star-mirror at Pukara Grande, southern BoliviaStar-mirror at Pukara Grande, southern Bolivia

Although its flat summit has now been scooped out by treasure hunters, Tiwanaku’s Akapana Pyramid was once the location of a large star-mirror that took the form of an Andean cross, or chakana (see below for an explanation of the significance of the chakana’s geometry). It is not beyond the bounds of reason to wonder if this, and the other star-mirrors of Tiwanaku, were used to gauge when the Milky Way overhead reached an angle of 45°, when it would have aligned with the Cordilleras that stand on each side of the great Andean Metropolis. As we know, the solstice was an important time of the year in terms of material well being, but that was just the reflection on the surface of a wider and deeper cosmological meaning. Before we examine the mirroring of the Milky Way further, it is worth mentioning a curious but related fact. The British researcher Mark Vidlervii discovered that during our present era, the heavens’ brightest star Sirius passes directly over Tiwanaku along its path in the heavens running from east to west. This could be dismissed as arbitrary and coincidental, were it not for the timing of this celestial event – at the halfway point of a precessional cycle of 25,920 years from the ending of the last Ice Age. I cannot help but wonder if those who originally surveyed and established Tiwanaku’s location were trying to tell us something about the rhythms of cataclysmic change on Earth and in the Solar System.

Again, the question arises as to why the amautas of the Andes would go to the trouble of creating star-mirrors just to study the heavens, when they could simply have looked upwards in order to do so? As we have just seen, placing star-mirrors in specific positions would have helped them to determine the timing of certain key events, but there must have been other reasons for this practice. Staring at reflective objects – such as crystal balls – for long periods of time in something known as scrying, can induce a form of autohypnosis. The fact that these watery mirrors constantly reflected the stars and planets above, by virtue of their being placed face-upwards, perhaps hints that they were used for a sophisticated form of scrying. The emerging findings of my research have led me to the view that the ancient shamans of Tiwanaku took this process a step further than this, even. In effect, star-mirrors were a kind of astro-shamanic technology that enabled human consciousness to journey beyond its physical bounds under certain special conditions.

The notion that consciousness can leave the body may seem fanciful, perhaps even preposterous, to our western post-enlightenment culture, but it is entirely consistent with how shamans believe they work. They often maintain that the non-physical world through which they journey is a mirror-image of the material one; an idea that seems to have extremely ancient roots.viii Interestingly, some modern tribal peoples, such as the Hopi of the southwestern United States, still adhere to this kind of symmetrical cosmology.ix Our contemporary western conception of the world is generally set at odds with such ideas, but they were meat and drink to those who constructed the Way of Viracocha. Indeed, these notions seem to have retained a power in the minds of those who used star-mirrors in all of the successor cultures down to the time of the Incas. For this reason alone, we should consider them with respect at the very least. Without doing so, we in the modern world cannot appreciate – let alone fully understand – the magnificence of ancient cultures beyond the bones, stones and pottery shards that they left behind them before departing to the stars.

Where the river of stars meets the wheel of time

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We come now to what was probably an essential aspect of the 45° alignment, if not what all of the immense effort was principally in aid of. That the most ancient peoples, including those of the Andes, considered the soul to be immortal is something that may be thought of today as a primitive trait, especially if our values conform to the modern western materialist milieu of linear progress. For ancient peoples, however, the soul’s departure to the heavens after death was not some fable, or even a vague aspiration. Rather, it was a technical process that was associated with the Sun’s passage along the ecliptic to where it crossed the celestial river of the Milky Way. This was the heavenly spot where departed souls arrived at the junction between the realms of time (the ecliptic) and eternity (the Milky Way). Conversely, the same place was where returning discarnate souls entered into the realm of mutability and change, by re-joining the circular path of the ecliptic that marks the various cycles of time in the physical world. The solstices – as points along the annual path of the sun when it appears to stand still for a while – provided the gateways for the soul to pass between the world above to that below and vice-versa.x

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Nikola Tesla-Newly Discovered Drawings Show “Map” To Multiplication

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By CBS Breaking News

A recently discovered set of original Nikola Tesla drawings reveal a map to multiplication that contains all numbers in a simple to use system. The drawings were discovered at an antique shop in central Phoenix Arizona by local artist, Abe Zucca. They are believed to have been created during the last years of Tesla’s Free Energy lab, Wardenclyffe. The manuscript is thought to contain many solutions to unanswered questions about mathematics.

The Sketches were hidden in a small trunk with numerous other drawings and manuscripts ranging from hand-held technological devices to free-energy systems, many with notes scrawled all over them. Some of the pieces are already familiar to the public, but a few others are not. Most notably is the Map to Multiplication or the Math Spiral. Zucca made a few copies and showed the drawings around to different thinkers, dreamers, and mathematicians.

Related Article: Influence of Vedic Philosophy on Nikola Tesla’s Idea of Free Energy

fullimageTesla MMap CN

A few days later a Local High School Mathematics Instructor, Joey Grether, had been working on deciphering the system and had a few breakthroughs. Grether suggests that the Spiral not only explores Multiplication as an interwoven web, but that it, “offers a comprehensive visual understanding of how all numbers are self-organized into 12 positions of compositability.”

“This device allows us to see numbers as patterns, the formation of prime numbers, twin primes, Highly composite numbers, multiplication and division, as well as few other systems, I imagine, that are yet to be discovered.”

The diagram itself is very intuitive, allowing students to see how numbers all work together based on a spiral with 12 positions. 12, or 12x (multiples of 12) is the most highly composite system, which is why we have 12 months in a year, 12 inches in a foot, 24 hours in a day, etc. 12 can be divided by 2, 3, 4, and 6. So can all multiples of 12. For every 12 numbers there is a chance of 4 numbers being prime. They happen to fall in positions (think clock positions) 5, 7, 11, and 1.

Tesla is known for the quote “If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9, then you would have the key to the universe.” It turns out that when the device is examined, the digital roots of the numbers in positions 3, 6, 9, and 12 constantly repeat the same sequence 3, 6, 9! Is this what Tesla was referring too? The self-organization of numbers and their digital roots?

Related Article: The Extraterrestrial Messages of Nikola Tesla

Its hard to say, but Grether seems to think so. “This breakthrough is phenomenal. If we could get students all over the globe to use this technique, to play with it, and help figure out how to use it, we could overcome our cultural aversion to Mathematics. Instead of memorizing the multiplication table, we could learn the positions of numbers and have a better understanding of how they work.”

Juan Zapata, One of Mr. G’s students believes so as well… “I used to say I’m bad at Math… cause thats what everyone says, but now, I’m like, dude, this is too easy.”

Theres one other fact about the Tesla Spiral that make it interesting. The diagram is dated 12/12/12! 1912. Grether and his students want to turn December 12 into a national holiday. So grab a 12 pack, get a dozen donuts, and celebrate the power of 12x.

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